© Borgis - New Medicine 1/2004, s. 17-19
Anna Waluś1, Lidia Wądołowska2, Roman Cichon1,2
Assessment of the Nutritional Status of 16-year-olds from Olsztyn*
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetic, Medical University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Head of Department: Prof. Roman Cichon, MSc. PhD
2Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
Head of Institute: Prof. Roman Cichon, MSc, PhD
Aim. The aim of the work was the evaluation of the nutritional status of 16-year-olds from Olsztyn.
Material and method. The research included 101 girls and 99 boys aged 16 living in Olsztyn. Their nutritional status was estimated with the use of anthropometric parameters, i.e. body mass and height, arm circumference, and 4 skinfold thickness measurements. The BMI (kg/m2), arm muscle circumference (AMC, cm), fat-free body mass (FFM, kg), fat mass (FM, kg) and fat mass percentage in the body (%FM, %) were calculated. The results were displayed as mean value and standard deviation (x ± SD), and then linked with percentile values taken from Warsaw teenagers´ standards.
Results. Average values of anthropometric indices, i.e. height, body mass, BMI, arm circumference and the subscapular skinfold thickness measurements, for both girls and boys, corresponded with the 25th-75th percentile of those parameters for Warsaw 16-year-olds. Average BMI corresponded with the 50th-75th percentile of the Warsaw boys´ standard. The subscapular skinfold thickness measurements in girls corresponded with the 75th percentile, and the 50th-75th percentile for boys. This showed slightly more fatness in teenagers from Olsztyn, located in the upper part of the body, when compared with the Warsaw figures. In the population distribution analysis of the anthropometric parameters, adequate nutritional status was shown among 50% of young population, while 30% of girls and boys were found to have their body mass, BMI and skinfold thickness measurements above the 75th percentile of standards.
Conclusion. School students from Olsztyn showed proper average body sizes and a little more fatness, situated in the upper part of the body, when compared with the Warsaw teenager standard.
Adequate nutrition is one of the most significant environmental factors influencing the level and dynamics of body growth and maintaining the well-being of people. This is particularly important during intensive growth in adolescence of children and teenagers, affecting the adequate course of all processes connected with that period of life on the biological level as well as in the psychological sphere (1, 2).
The aim of the work was the evaluation of the nutritional status of 16-year-olds from Olsztyn.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
The research included 101 girls and 99 boys aged 16, attending high schools of different profiles, in Olsztyn. Subjects for the research were selected by the group method, by schools, and then two or three classes from each school. The research was conducted in Autumn 2002, with the agreement of the Bioethics Commission at the Regional Warmia and Masuria Physicians´ Chamber in Olsztyn (no 49/2001).
Nutritional status was evaluated by anthropometric methods, on the basis of the body mass and height, arm circumference and 4 skinfold thicknesses: triceps skinfold (TSF, mm), biceps skinfold (BSF, mm), subscapular skinfold (SCSF, mm) and suprailiac skinfold (SISF, mm) measurements. On their basis the BMI (kg/m2), fat mass (FM, kg), fat-free mass (FFM, kg), fat percentage in the body (%FM, %) and arm muscle circumference (AMC, cm) (1, 2, 3) were calculated. The results were displayed as mean value and standard deviation (x±SD), and then referred to percentage values determined for Warsaw teenagers (4). The population percentage was calculated in the specified percentage ranges. The statistical analysis was carried out with the computer program STATISTICA PL v.6.0.
The mean girls´ height amounted to 164.2±6.09 cm and met the 50th percentile for girls from Warsaw (Table 1) (4). The mean height of boys, 172.6±10.1 cm, was close to the values over the 25th percentile for Warsaw boys. The body mass of Olsztyn girls, amounting to 58.4±15.28 kg, was situated within the 50th and the 75th percentile. The mean body mass of the Olsztyn boys corresponded with values below the 50th percentile. The body mass index (BMI) agreed with the 50th-75th percentile, and amounted to 21.6±5.05 kg/m2 for girls, and 21.4±5.67 kg/m2 for boys (Table 1). The mean arm circumference of girls (23.6±3.29 cm) was within the range determined by the 25th and the 50th percentile, while the mean arm circumference of boys (24.6±3.17 cm) matched the 25th percentile for boys from Warsaw. The mean subscapular skinfold thickness of teenagers from Olsztyn amounted to 12.0±5.63 mm for girls, and 8.0±4.55 mm for boys. The values for girls corresponded with the 75th percentile of Warsaw girls, while for boys they were from the 50th to the 75th percentile of Warsaw boys. Similar results concerning height, body mass, and BMI for Warsaw teenagers were obtained by Chwojnowska et al. (5). Slightly different results for teenagers from Biała Podlaska were obtained by Czeczelewski et al. (6). The mean body mass and height of girls from the Biała Podlaska Province amounted to: 48.6±6.1 kg and 160.0±5.2 cm respectively and boys to 50.4±8.4 kg and 163.8±7.2 cm. Results obtained for Olsztyn students in comparison to data for young people from Biała Podlaska were higher in the case of girls, 9.8 kg and 4.2 cm respectively, and with reference to boys, 12.8 kg and 8.8 cm respectively. BMI for subjects from Biała Podlaska Province reached a level of 18.9±1.7 kg/m2 with reference to girls and 18.7±2.1 kg/m2 for boys. The mean BMI values of Olsztyn´s teenagers in comparison to values analyzed by Czeczelewski et al. (1) were higher by 2.7 kg/m2, both for girls and for boys.
Table 1. Mean values of anthropometric parameters.
|Parameter||Girls N = 101||Boys N = 99||Percentile positions for the Olsztyn students according to the percentage values for Warsaw standard (4) |
|x ? SD||Girls||Boys|
|Height, cm||164.2 ? 6.09||172.6 ? 10.1||50c||> 25c|
|Body mass, kg||58.4 ? 15.28||63.2 ? 9.81||50-75c||< 50c|
|BMI, kg/m2||21.6 ? 5.05||21.4 ? 5.67||50-75c||50-75c|
|Arm circumference, cm||23.6 ? 3.29||24.6 ? 3.17||25-50c||25c|
|SCSF, mm||12.0 ? 5.63||8.0 ? 4.55||75c||50-75c|
|FM, kg||13.9 ? 6.02||6.7 ? 4.32|| || |
|%FM, %||23.2 ? 4.44||10.2 ? 4.82|| || |
|FFM, kg||44.5 ? 10.02||56.4 ? 7.00|| || |
|AMC, cm||20.3 ? 2.84||22.9 ? 2.95|| || |
BMI – body mass index, SCSF – subscapular skinfold, FM – fat mass, %FM – fat mass percentage in the body, FFM – fat-free body mass, AMC – arm muscle circumference, c – percentiles
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