Ludzkie koronawirusy - autor: Krzysztof Pyrć z Zakładu Mikrobiologii, Wydział Biochemii, Biofizyki i Biotechnologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Kraków

Zastanawiasz się, jak wydać pracę doktorską, habilitacyjną lub monografię? Chcesz dokonać zmian w stylistyce i interpunkcji tekstu naukowego? Nic prostszego! Zaufaj Wydawnictwu Borgis – wydawcy renomowanych książek i czasopism medycznych. Zapewniamy przede wszystkim profesjonalne wsparcie w przygotowaniu pracy, opracowanie dokumentacji oraz druk pracy doktorskiej, magisterskiej, habilitacyjnej. Dzięki nam nie będziesz musiał zajmować się projektowaniem okładki oraz typografią książki.

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© Borgis - New Medicine 1/2009, s. 19-23
*Ewa Wilczek-Rużyczka
Social support for people suffering from depression and their families
Vice Head of the Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Cracow
Katarzyna Wojtas, MSc Junior Assistant, Institute of Nursing and Midwifery
Head: Prof. Antoni Czupryna, PhD
Summary
The experience of mental illness is a difficult situation not only for the patient but also his or her family. Natural consequences of this morbid state include changes of past lifestyle and social functioning of patients after they went through a mental crisis. Mental illness often leads to a situation where patients are isolated from society and experience social discrimination and stigma. It results in loneliness, a sense of isolation and not being understood, which may exacerbate patients´ illness. That is why support received from close relatives and friends becomes so important, for it complements the help and support provided by clinicians and the whole therapeutic team during the course of treatment.
The objective of this work was to try to define the role of social support and its influence on the well-being of the mentally ill. In order to achieve this purpose, the literature regarding this topic and personal experiences obtained while working in the psychiatric unit were reviewed. This paper describes depressive symptoms classified according to ICD-10. It also discusses their consequences for social functioning of a suffering person and analyses social support and its sources in the light of interpersonal relations and interactions.
Introduction
The experience of mental illness is a difficult situation not only for the patient but also his or her family. Natural consequences of this morbid state include changes of past lifestyle and social functioning of patients after they went through a mental crisis. Mental illness often leads to a situation where patients are isolated from society and experience social discrimination and stigma. It results in loneliness, a sense of isolation and not being understood, which may exacerbate patients´ illness. That is why support received from close family and friends becomes so important, as it complements the help and support provided by clinicians and the whole therapeutic team during the course of treatment.
The objective of this work was to try to define the role of social support and its influence on the well-being of the mentally ill. In order to achieve this purpose, the literature regarding this topic and personal experiences obtained while working in the psychiatric unit were reviewed.
Social support is an important element enhancing the process of recovery. It stimulates mechanisms for coping with difficult situations. Therefore, it may limit the consequences of mental illness regarding social roles of patients. However, the efficacy of social support will depend on the form and ways of providing this support and also on the patient´s ability to see and accept it. Moreover, social support efficiency also depends on various factors including interpersonal relations between subjects receiving and providing support. The patient should define the character of a difficult situation such as depression, and express his/her individual needs for social support.
Depression, colloquially understood as feeling sad, blue or in a low mood, is defined in psychiatry as „a special kind of disorders regarding mood and emotions, which may be classified as a morbid state, and therefore require medical help”. In order to distinguish depression from normal mood changes, clinical evaluation including the following elements should be taken into account: the intensity of disorders, their duration, the efficacy of pharmacotherapy, and severity of experienced symptoms [1].
Depression is a mental disorder comprising psychological, social and biological conditions. Nosological classification recognizes three groups of depression: reactive, endogenous, and somatogenic depression [2]. From the symptomatological point of view depressive symptoms are diagnosed on the basis of disease symptoms. According to the ICD-10 classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, the major depressive symptoms include: lowered mood, loss of interests, decreased energy, and additional symptoms, e.g. sense of guilt, lower self-esteem, sleep disorders, decreased concentration, memory loss, and suicidal thoughts and tendencies. Depression may be diagnosed when a specific number of symptoms is observed on a daily basis for a period of at least two weeks. The above classification defines the following morbid syndromes: depressive episode, recurrent depressive disorders, bipolar affective disorders, and chronic mood disorders – dysthymia. Depressive symptoms may also be diagnosed in patients suffering from schizophrenia, neurosis or organic mood disorders [3].
Depression is characterized by a very wide spectrum of symptoms [2, 1, 4]. The major symptom of depression is worsened mood, described by patients as gloom, resignation and sadness, while feelings of joy and satisfaction are not experienced despite objective reasons for them. Relations with close family and friends also suffer; the contacts become colder and even indifference may be observed, regardless of earlier strong and positively expressed emotions. Family members may often feel guilty and accuse each other of inefficient relations with the sick person. Depressive mood is characterized by a tone of despair, suffering and helplessness.
People with depression often exhibit disordered thinking. They also have low self-esteem, low self-confidence and decreased sense of dignity. They forget about all their achievements in both professional and family life. Instead, they focus on failures, which, in their opinion, prove their incompetence. Negative assessment of the past, present and future often leads to suicidal attempts. Kepinski described this situation perfectly with the following words: „Depression is a kind of darkness. It seems like the depths, a black wall separating a person from the world. The past, present and future are black.” [5]. Moreover, pointing to positive aspects of life, the presence of happy, smiling people, or attempts to cheer up individuals with depression, causes additional irritation [6].
Decreased motor activity, as one of the depressive disorders, manifests with slowed locomotor movements, which seem to be ponderous, requiring enormous effort from the patient. However, one must be aware that drive disorders may also take the form of stupor or motor anxiety/arousal. Everyday activities, which used to be performed before depression occurred, become neglected or significantly limited. They are frequently accompanied by aversion, which is misunderstood by other people and leads to unjustified remarks about the patient´s laziness. Patients lack the strength to challenge such assumptions; therefore they accept this label though they do not agree with it.
Slowed functioning of a patient with depression can also be observed in the aspect of mental processes. The pace of thinking slows down; statements are short, laconic and proceeded with moments of reflection. Depressive patients are tired by conversation. That is why information for them should be simple and short; „deep depression excludes long conversations with the patient (...) very often he/she is unable to say a word” [6]. Attention must be paid to the following complaints given by patients: concentration difficulties, problems with focusing and worsened ability to remember things. Specific features of depression are present in biological functioning. They manifest with hypo- and hypersomnia accompanied by 24-hour changes of mood and activity (morning hours are the most difficult). Apart from the above-mentioned problems patients also complain of poor physical well-being. This symptom should never be underestimated, taken lightly or trivialized with the words „you´ll feel better in a minute” because it may signal serious somatic disorders. These include: dyspnoea, headaches and dizziness, brachycardia, decreased arterial blood pressure, constipation, and dryness of mucosa. ICD-10 does not include one symptom of depression, i.e. slowly drifting anxiety, whose intensity changes in time, with the sense of threat, and internal tension.
The experience of various bothersome symptoms in the physical and mental spheres of the patient´s life affects his/her social functioning. „Recent years have brought a significant increase of interest in psychosocial effects of depression. It especially concerns family life disorders and disease influencing the patient´s social environment ”[7]. Depressive patients tend to become isolated from their surroundings. The circle of their friends becomes tighter; sometimes relations are even broken. They are overwhelmed by their own negative emotions and are unable to maintain social relationships. The situation gets much worse when no psychotic symptoms are observed in the course of depression. Then the patient´s criticism makes the experience of disease a lot more severe. People in the patient´s social sphere start to notice that someone who previously was known to be full of life has become dull, grey and quiet. Facial mimics are very poor and express only sadness, while the eyes show tension and suffering. Slower pace of thinking and difficulties with making decisions make the whole process of communication hard and may even lead to frustration of the interlocutor, annoyed by the long periods of silence.
Mentally ill patients overwhelmed by personal suffering and the burden of experienced sadness show no interest in the surrounding world. Patients are convinced that other people do not understand them and feel lonely. And other people, unaware of depression or its course, avoid contacts with the patient. It seems safer not to get in touch and protect one´s own emotional life from others´ problems. That is how the phenomenon of indifference and social alienation is born.
Unfortunately, despite social information programmes in the mass media, mentally ill people are still treated as second-class citizens, of the worse category. „ From both the historical and present point of view the concepts of mental illness and the mentally ill person are present in the social consciousness in the form of broad negative connotations and stereotypes. ” [8] Kepinski´s opinion about people surrounding mentally ill patients seems to be particularly relevant when taking into account these types of social attitudes and behaviours. „ No other environment is as dangerous as the human one. It hides evil, cruelty, a tendency toward taking away freedom, etc. Therefore, a man cannot be sure what to expect from others. No other environment is so insecure, ” says Kempinski [5].
Society does not like distinctness and non-conformity, especially when it concerns mental health. It is much easier to understand somatic disease, physical suffering caused by injuries or surgical interventions. It is easier because it is justified and tangible. Mental suffering cannot be touched, seen or measured. This phenomenon cannot be evaluated by any scales or measures. „As far as mental illness is concerned, finding the cause of suffering is the major problem. Furthermore, the analysis of those causes does not make much sense, for the patient´s fears, sadness, hostility, terror and strange behaviours seem unfounded ” [3].
Mental suffering is a highly subjective experience and it requires multiple skills from people accompanying the patient so they can understand the patient´s inner discomfort and provide adequate support.
Interest in social support issues has its origins in the nineteen sixties, when evaluation of social support efficacy and its active role in treatment during the course of depression was attempted for the first time [9].
Social support in the aspect of interpersonal relations is seen as helpful relations of protective character. Through such relations a person´s interpersonal needs may be fulfilled. It makes the process of adaptation to difficult situations easier. Contact with others becomes accessible and it preserves the patient´s health status on the highest possible level [10].
Siegel´s definition of social support from 1993 describes it as „information received from other people saying that they love you, that you deserve to be taken care of, that you are worthy and dear, and you are also a part of the network of interrelations in relationships with your parents, spouse, partner, other relatives, friends, society, church, club and even your favourite pet ” [11].
The model of social support given as a category of interpersonal interactions:
– Its purpose is to bring one or both participants closer to the solution of a problem, overcome difficulties, reorganize disturbed relations with the patient´s social environment and support the patient emotionally;
– During the course of this interaction, emotions, information, instruments and material goods are exchanged;
– Aptness between what is expected and what is provided is the key element making this social exchange effective;
– Exchange taking place during this interaction may be one-sided or mutual while the direction of the relation between the supported and supporting is constant or changes;
– Interaction and exchange take place in problematic and difficult situations [12].

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Piśmiennictwo
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Adres do korespondencji:
*Ewa Wilczek-Rużyczka
Instytut Pielęgniarstwa i Położnictwa CM UJ
Str. Kopernika 25, 31-501 Kraków
tel.: (12) 421-41-60, 424-72-82
e-mail: ewaroz0@poczta.onet.pl

New Medicine 1/2009
Strona internetowa czasopisma New Medicine