Ludzkie koronawirusy - autor: Krzysztof Pyrć z Zakładu Mikrobiologii, Wydział Biochemii, Biofizyki i Biotechnologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Kraków

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© Borgis - Postępy Nauk Medycznych 6/2012, s. 491-495
*Marek Tomaszewski, Tomasz Kotwicki, Andrzej Szulc
Skuteczność pojedynczej i podwójnej predonacji łącznej z pooperacyjnym odzyskiem krwi w operacjach skolioz
Effectiveness of single and double predonation combined with postoperative recuperation for blood salvage in scoliosis surgery
Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań
Head of Department: Prof. Andrzej Szulc, MD, PhD
Streszczenie
Wstęp. Autotransfuzja jest zalecana u pacjentów podlegających zabiegom chirurgicznym kręgosłupa jako uznany środek redukujący potrzebę transfuzji krwi obcej. Istnieje niedobór badań, które mogłyby bezpośrednio porównać tę procedurę w podobnych grupach chorych leczonych alternatywnie z antotransfuzją lub bez autotransfuzji.
Materiał i metody. Retrospektywna analiza z grupą kontrolną. 42 kolejnych pacjentów (grupa badana), średnia wieku 15,1 lat, zakwalifikowano do programu autotransfuzji (podgrupa 1.1 – 22 pacjentów, którzy mieli jedną predonację i podgrupa 1.2 – 20 pacjentów, którzy mieli dwie predonacje), wykonując u nich stabilizację skoliozy idiopatycznej z dojścia tylnego. W grupie badanej zrealizowano predonację oraz pooperacyjny odzysk krwi. Liczba segmentów objętych instrumentacją wynosiła od 6 do 14, średnia 9,9 ± 1,9; średnia czasu operacji 190,8 ± 36,7 minut. Grupa kontrolna została zaadaptowana z pracy Lisandera i wsp. (1) i składała się z 13 pacjentów dobranych pod względem wieku, płci, typu zabiegu, czasu operacji i liczby segmentów objętych instrumentarium. W grupie tej nie przeprowadzono autotransfuzji.
Wyniki. Objętość predonacji w podgrupie 1.1 wahała się od 250 do 520 ml, średnia 324 ml, a w podgrupie 1.2 odpowiednio od 400 do 1040, średnia 762 ml. Odzyskana i przetoczona w okresie pooperacyjnym objętość krwi w podgrupie 1.1 wahała się od 200 do 1350 ml, średnia 653 ml, a w podgrupie 1.2 od 320 do 950 ml, średnia 681 ml. W podgrupie 1.1 dziewięciu pacjentów (41%), a w podgrupie 1.2 jedenastu pacjentów (55%) uniknęło transfuzji krwi obcej. 5.5 jednostek krwi obcej przetoczono przeciętnie pacjentom z grupy kontrolnej przy 1 jednostce w grupie badanej (p < 0,001).
Wnioski. Prosta i niedroga procedura jedno- lub dwukrotnej predonacji oraz odzysku krwi znacząco ale nie całkowicie redukują transfuzje krwi obcej u nastolatków przechodzących operacje skoliozy. Większa liczba pacjentów po podwójnej niż po pojedynczej predonacji uniknęła transfuzji krwi obcej.
Summary
Introduction. The autotransfusion is promoted for patients undergoing scoliosis surgery as a recognized mean for reducing homologous transfusion need. There is a deficiency of studies which directly compare this procedure in similar groups of patients managed alternatively with or without autotransfusion.
Material and methods. Retrospective analysis with control group. Forty two consecutive patients (study group), mean age 15.1 years, underwent the autotransfusion program (subgroup 1.1 – 22 patients who had single and subgroup 1.2 – 20 patients who had double predonation) while having posterior instrumentation for idiopathic scoliosis. Preoperative donation and postoperative recuperation were performed in the study group. The number of instrumented segments varied from 6 to 14, mean 9.9 ± 1.9; the mean time of operation was 190.8 ± 36.7 minutes. The control group was adopted from Lisander et al. (1) and consisted of thirteen patients matched by age, sex, type of surgery, time of operation and the number of instrumented vertebrae. No autotransfusion was carried out in the control group.
Results. Predonated volume in subgroup 1.1 varied from 250 to 520 ml, mean 324 ml and in subgroup 1.2 respectively from 400 to 1040, mean 762. Postoperatively recuperated and retransfused blood volume in subgroup 1.1 varied from 200 to 1350 ml, mean 653 ml and in subgroup 1.2 from 320 to 950 ml, mean 681 ml. In subgroup 1.1 nine patients (41%) and in subgroup 1.2 eleven patients (55%) avoided homologue transfusion. 5.5 homologous blood units on the average were transfused to patients from the control group while 1 unit to patients from the study group (p < 0.001).
Conclusions. Simple and costless procedures of single or double predonation and postoperative blood recuperation significantly reduced but not completely avoided homologous transfusion in adolescents undergoing surgery for scoliosis. More patients with double predonation than with single predonation avoided homologous transfusion.
introduction
Surgery for scoliosis can cause an important intra- and postoperative blood loss, so transfusion can be required. Homologue transfusion risks consist of infectious and immunologic complications (2). Although blood tests eliminate contamination with hepatitis C or HIV viruses, the whole spectrum of potentially dangerous infectious agents is not screened. New viruses and prions can be involved and a long seroconversion time can be responsible for false negative results of blood tests (2). Immunization with allogeneic proteins in young females can cause later complications during pregnancy(3). Benefits of autotransfusion concern the reduction of the postoperative venous thromboembolism (4) and postoperative infection rate (5). Avoiding homologous blood transfusion is expected by patients and families.
Autotransfusion techniques comprise [1] pre-, [2] intra- and [3] postoperative period. [1] Preoperative donation is usually performed once a week and allows the collection of one to three blood units. Blood volume stored in each donation depends on the patient’s weight; the folic acid and ferrous supplementation are simultaneously ordered. The advantage of predonation comprises the stimulation of hematogenic function of the bone marrow within the days that immediately precede the operation (6-8). [2] The intra-operative techniques comprise normovolemic hemodilution of an anesthetized patient. This harmless procedure reduces the hematocrite so the intraoperative hemoglobin loss is diminished (9, 10). However it requires additional time spent in the preparation room and does not provides stimulation of hematopoesis. During operation, the limitation of bleeding is assured with an atraumatic surgery and the use of electrocautery. Intraoperative blood recuperation systems are helpful, however they require important and expensive hardware and are considered advantageous only for very long and severe procedures. If the blood loss is moderate, it makes this technique less effective in limiting homologous transfusion (11, 12). [3] Finally the postoperative recuperation systems provide the blood collected from the drainage during the first postoperative hours.
At Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology the autotransfusion in the form of predonations and postoperative recuperation with the BCC stryker (Stryker) is proposed systematically to all adolescents undergoing scoliosis surgery or any other planned operation at risk of important blood loss. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the autotransfusion in adolescents operated on for scoliosis by comparing this practice with control group.
material and Methods
Forty two consecutive patients (study group) underwent the autotransfusion before surgery for scoliosis. Study group was divided into two subgroup 1.1 and 1.2 depending on the number of predonation, respectively single or double. There were 39 girls and 3 boys, aged from 12 to 23 years, mean 15.1 years. All patients were operated on for idiopathic scoliosis. Idiopathic scoliosis pattern was single thoracic curve in 7 patients, double thoracic curve in 3 patients and double thoracic and lumbar curve in 18 patients. Posterior approach, spinal liberation, frame instrumentation with double side hooks and rods according to Cotrel and Dubousset (13), as well as meticulous decortication were performed by the same surgeon (T.K.). In 20 patients (11 in 1.1 and 9 in 1.2) the iliac bone autograft was derived. One or two suction drains were used in the main wound and one additional in the iliac crest. The drains were usually kept 48 hours, depending on the flow noted. Verticalisation after drains ablation was effected on the 3rd postoperative day.
Preoperative donation was performed in all patients. Following the predonation a supplementation with ferrous sulfate and folic acid was ordered. Psychological preparation to the predonation consisted of information provided to the patients in an talk before admission. Both patients and parents were addressed, all questions were answered, and a psychologist was engaged in difficult situations. Patients were encouraged to visit the department before admission in order to talk to the adolescents already hospitalized. Nurses and laboratory staff were engaged in motivation of the patients. The day of predonation a lignocaine occlusion dressing was applied over the vein before the catheterization for local anesthesia. Written approval for the procedure was asked both from the parent and the patient. The amount of the predonation varied from 250 to 520 ml, according to the body weight. The bags with a suitable anticoagulant content were individually prepared in the Local Transfusion Center.
Positioning of the patient on the operation table respected the rules of protecting him from the overpressure on the perivertebral venous circulation. Surgical exposure was done carefully, cauthery and bone wax were used, and the final decortication immediately preceded wound closure. Postoperative autotransfusion was performed in all patients. Blood lost in suction drains during the first 6 hours after wound closure was recuperated in Blood Conservation System device (Stryker) and retransfused.
The control group consisted of thirteen scoliotic patients (12 girls and 1 boy) operated for scoliosis with posterior Harrington instrumentation. Scoliosis was idiopathic in all cases. The patients from the control group did not undergo autotransfusion and the blood loss was compensated with the homologous transfusion. The patients from the study and control groups were matched by age, gender, time of operation and the number of instrumented vertebrae. The values of analyzed parameters are listed in the table 3. The matching between subgroups concerning patients’ age, operative time and the number of instrumented vertebrae was checked by the two-sided unpaired t test (p > 0.05).
Patients’ height, weight, number and volume of preoperative donations, volume of operative lost, postoperative recuperation and postoperative loss were analyzed. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and hematocrite (Ht) were noted before preoperative donation, before the operation, immediately after the operation and at the 1st and 3rd postoperative days. Decrease of blood hemoglobin concentration related to the predonation of 500 ml of blood was calculated. Total blood need was calculated for each patient by adding the homologous transfusion volume to the autologous predonated volume and the autologous drainage recuperated volume. This volume was related to the severity of operation by dividing the total transfused blood volume (ml) by the number of instrumented vertebrae multiplied by the operative time (hours). We described this value as blood demand formula (BDF). Finally the amount of homologous transfusion was compared with control group. W Shapiro test was used for verifying normal distribution. T Student test was used for normal range parameters, Mann-Whitney’s for not normal.
Results

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Piśmiennictwo
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otrzymano: 2012-04-04
zaakceptowano do druku: 2012-05-10

Adres do korespondencji:
*Marek Tomaszewski
Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Medical Sciences
ul. 28 Czerwca nr 135, 61-545 Poznań
tel.: +48 503-085-677
e-mail: mtooma@wp.pl

Postępy Nauk Medycznych 6/2012
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