Ludzkie koronawirusy - autor: Krzysztof Pyrć z Zakładu Mikrobiologii, Wydział Biochemii, Biofizyki i Biotechnologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Kraków

Chcesz wydać pracę doktorską, habilitacyjną czy monografię? Zrób to w Wydawnictwie Borgis – jednym z najbardziej uznanych w Polsce wydawców książek i czasopism medycznych. W ramach współpracy otrzymasz pełne wsparcie w przygotowaniu książki – przede wszystkim korektę, skład, projekt graficzny okładki oraz profesjonalny druk. Wydawnictwo zapewnia szybkie terminy publikacji oraz doskonałą atmosferę współpracy z wysoko wykwalifikowanymi redaktorami, korektorami i specjalistami od składu. Oferuje także tłumaczenia artykułów naukowych, skanowanie materiałów potrzebnych do wydania książki oraz kompletowanie dorobku naukowego.

Poniżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu. Informacja nt. dostępu do pełnej treści artykułu tutaj
© Borgis - New Medicine 1/2012, s. 3-9
Agnieszka Marzęcka1, *Wojciech Chalcarz2, Sylwia Merkiel2, Natalia Popierz-Rydlewska2, Renata Godyń-Swędzioł1
Nutritional knowledge of pregnant women from Kraków. Part 3. Rich sources of vitamins and minerals1)
1Gabriel Narutowicz City Specialist Hospital in Kraków
Director: dr n. med. Renata Godyń-Swędzioł
2Food and Nutrition Department of the Eugeniusz Piasecki University School of Physical Education in Poznań
Head of the Department: dr hab. Wojciech Chalcarz, prof. nadzw. AWF
Summary
Aim. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about rich sources of vitamins and minerals in pregnant women from Kraków.
Material and methods. Questionnaires on the knowledge about rich sources of vitamins and minerals were filled in by 115 pregnant women who were admitted to Gabriel Narutowicz City Specialist Hospital in Kraków. Statistical analysis was carried out by means of the IBM SPSS Statistics 19. The studied population was divided according to the trimester of pregnancy.
Results. Statistically significant differences were found for the answers to seven questions. The women in the second trimester of pregnancy gave the most correct answers to as many as six of these questions, as well as to the remaining questions, statistically insignificant.
Conclusions. The level of nutritional knowledge in the studied pregnant women was varied and similar to the level observed in the populations studied previously. Most probably, the major factor which influences nutritional knowledge of pregnant women is not education, but the duration of pregnancy, the necessity to adapt to new conditions, and whether the pregnancy had been planned.
INTRODUCTION
The condition of a pregnant woman and the growing foetus is influenced to a large degree by the woman’s dietary intake. A pregnant woman should follow a balanced diet to provide adequate intake of all the essential nutrients. Adequate intake of vitamins and minerals is particularly important due to a high metabolic rate during pregnancy (1, 2). Deficient intake of some vitamins and minerals may be the cause of congenital defects, growth inhibition, low birth weight and growth retardation in foetus. However, excessive intake is also adverse, because it may disturb homeostasis or even be toxic (3).
At the highest risk of vitamin deficiency during pregnancy are females under the age of 16, as well as women who suffer from uncontrollable vomiting, women who smoke, drink alcohol or use other stimulants, suffer from chronic diseases, were underweight before getting pregnant and have low socio-economic status (3). These women need vitamin, and in some cases mineral, supplementation. Vitamin supplementation is recommended also to pregnant women whose medical history revealed risk factors, for example hypertension, diabetes, pre-eclampsia during previous pregnancy and multiple pregnancy (4, 5).
Pregnant women should know which foodstuffs are rich sources of vitamins and minerals and that during pregnancy, puerperium and lactation, the requirement for some of these nutrients increases.
AIM
The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about rich sources of vitamins and minerals in pregnant women from Kraków.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Questionnaires on the knowledge about rich sources of vitamins and minerals were filled in by 115 pregnant women who were admitted to Gabriel Narutowicz City Specialist Hospital in Kraków. For this purpose, a questionnaire from our previous studies was adapted (6-11). Characteristics of the studied pregnant women were given in our previous article (12).
This study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Poznan University of Medical Sciences.
Statistical analysis was carried out by means of the IBM SPSS Statistics 19. The studied population was divided according to the trimester of pregnancy. Qualitative variables were presented in contingency tables. Statistical significance was determined using Pearson’s chi-square test, except for the variables with more than 20% of cells with an expected frequency of less than five. In this case, the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05.
RESULTS
Table 1 shows the studied pregnant women’s correct answers to the questions concerning rich dietary sources of vitamin A according to the trimester of pregnancy. Statistically significant differences were found for the answers to four questions: whether meat and meat products, fish, milk and dairy products, and animal fat are rich dietary sources of vitamin A. Post hoc tests did not show statistically significant differences between the pairs of trimesters. To all of these questions, the highest percentages of correct answers were given by the women in the second trimester. The percentages of correct answers ranged from 12.0%, in case of the question whether fish is a rich source of vitamin A, to 24.0%, in case of the question whether animal fat is a rich source of vitamin A.
Table 1. The studied pregnant women’s correct answers to the questions concerning rich dietary sources of vitamin A according to the trimester of pregnancy. Results given in [%].
No.Correct answersTrimester of pregnancyAll women
(n=115)
The first
(n=14)
The second
(n=75)
The third
(n=26)
1.Meat and meat products are not rich sources of vitamin A* 7.1 13.3 3.8 10.4
2.Poultry is not a rich source of vitamin A7.114.73.811.3
3.Fish is not a rich source of vitamin A* 0.012.07.79.6
4.Sweets are not rich sources of vitamin A28.646.746.244.3
5.Milk and dairy products are rich sources of vitamin A*0.0 22.7 15.418.3
6.Animal fat is not a rich source of vitamin A*7.124.07.718.3
7.Plant oils are not rich sources of vitamin A14.314.711.513.9
8.Nuts, almonds, soya bean and bran are not rich sources of vitamin A14.310.711.511.3
9.Blackcurrants and strawberries are not rich sources of vitamin A0.016.015.413.9
10.Wholemeal bread is not a rich source of vitamin A21.416.07.714.8
Bold type denotes statistical significance at p ≤ 0.05.
*Post hoc tests did not show statistically significant differences between the pairs of trimesters.
Table 2 shows the studied pregnant women’s correct answers to the questions concerning rich dietary sources of B vitamins according to the trimester of pregnancy. No statistically significant differences were observed. The women in the second trimester of pregnancy gave the highest percentages of correct answers to six questions.
Table 2. The studied pregnant women’s correct answers to the questions concerning rich dietary sources of B vitamins according to the trimester of pregnancy. Results given in [%].
No.Correct answersTrimester of pregnancyAll women
(n=115)
The first
(n=14)
The second
(n=75)
The third
(n=26)
1.Meat and meat products are rich sources of B vitamins28.637.330.834.8
2.Poultry is a rich source of B vitamins21.444.023.136.5
3.Fish is a rich source of B vitamins28.644.038.540.9
4.Sweets are not rich sources of B vitamins64.372.076.972.2
5.Milk and dairy products are rich sources of B vitamins14.336.023.130.4
6.Animal fat is not a rich source of B vitamins42.936.026.934.8
7.Plant oils are not rich sources of B vitamins14.326.719.223.5
8.Nuts, almonds, soya bean and bran are rich sources of B vitamins57.152.034.648.7
9.Blackcurrants and strawberries are not rich sources of B vitamins7.124.011.519.1
10.Wholemeal bread is a rich source of B vitamins57.150.734.647.8
Table 3 shows the studied pregnant women’s correct answers to the questions concerning rich dietary sources of vitamin C according to the trimester of pregnancy. No statistically significant differences were observed. The women in the third trimester of pregnancy gave the highest percentages of correct answers to five questions.
Table 3. The studied pregnant women’s correct answers to the questions concerning rich dietary sources of vitamin C according to the trimester of pregnancy. Results given in [%].
No.Correct answersTrimester of pregnancyAll women
(n=115)
The first
(n=14)
The second
(n=75)
The third
(n=26)
1.Meat and meat products are not rich sources of vitamin C28.650.750.047.8
2.Poultry is not rich a source of vitamin C28.648.050.046.1
3.Fish is not rich a source of vitamin C28.649.350.047.4
4.Sweets are not rich sources of vitamin C57.158.757.758.3
5.Milk and dairy products are not rich sources of vitamin C42.948.050.047.8
6.Animal fat is not rich a source of vitamin C21.450.750.047.0
7.Plant oils are not rich sources of vitamin C21.438.742.337.4
8.Nuts, almonds, soya bean and bran are not rich sources of vitamin C35.729.334.631.3
9.Blackcurrants and strawberries are rich sources of vitamin C64.3 86.7 88.584.3
10.Wholemeal bread is not rich a source of vitamin C21.440.023.133.9
Table 4 shows the studied pregnant women’s correct answers to the questions concerning rich dietary sources of calcium according to the trimester of pregnancy. No statistically significant differences were observed. The women in the second trimester of pregnancy gave the highest percentages of correct answers to six questions, whereas the percentages of correct answers in women in the first trimester were the lowest in case of all of the questions.
Table 4. The studied pregnant women’s correct answers to the questions concerning rich dietary sources of calcium according to the trimester of pregnancy. Results given in [%].
No.Correct answersTrimester of pregnancyAll women
(n=115)
The first
(n=14)
The second
(n=75)
The third
(n=26)
1.Meat and meat products are not rich sources of calcium28.634.738.534.8
2.Poultry is not a rich source of calcium28.634.734.633.9
3.Fish is not a rich source of calcium14.329.326.927.0
4.Sweets are not rich sources of calcium57.166.761.564.3
5.Milk and dairy products are rich sources of calcium78.686.796.287.8
6.Animal fat is not a rich source of calcium21.448.034.641.7
7.Plant oils are not rich sources of calcium21.449.338.543.5
8.Nuts, almonds, soya bean and bran are not rich sources of calcium28.6 29.3 30.829.6
9.Blackcurrants and strawberries are not rich sources of calcium28.645.338.541.7

Powyżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu, do którego możesz uzyskać pełny dostęp.

Płatny dostęp do wszystkich zasobów Czytelni Medycznej

Aby uzyskać płatny dostęp do pełnej treści powyższego artykułu oraz WSZYSTKICH około 7000 artykułów Czytelni, należy wprowadzić kod:

Kod (cena 30 zł za 30 dni dostępu) mogą Państwo uzyskać, przechodząc na tę stronę.
Wprowadzając kod, akceptują Państwo treść Regulaminu oraz potwierdzają zapoznanie się z nim.

Piśmiennictwo
1. Bolesta M, Szostak-Węgierek D: Żywienie kobiety podczas ciąży. Cz. II. Witaminy i składniki mineralne. Żyw Człow Metab 2009; 36 (4): 656-664. 2. Sobczak M, Jabłoński E: Składniki mineralne w diecie kobiet ciężarnych i karmiących. Przegl Lek 2007; 64 (3): 165-169. 3. Mitchell MK: Nutrition across the life span. 2nd Edition. Saunders, Philadelphia 2004. 4. Raczyński P, Kubik P, Niemiec T: Zalecenia dotyczące suplementacji diety u kobiet w ciąży i w czasie karmienia piersią. Ginekol Prakt 2006; 14 (4): 2-7. 5. Raczyński P, Kubik P, Niemiec T: Zalecenia dotyczące suplmentacji diety u kobiet podczas planowania ciąży i w czasie karmienia piersią. Ginekol Prakt 2006; 14( 4): 2-7. 6. Chalcarz W, Hodyr Z: Wiedza żywieniowa rodziców dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym. Materiały X Jubileuszowej Międzynarodowej Konferencji Naukowej: Uwarunkowania środowiskowe zdrowia dzieci. Legnica 1-2 czerwca 2001 roku, 117-121. 7. Chalcarz W, Merkiel S, Szajek G: Wiedza o bogatych źródłach wapnia w wybranych produktach spożywczych u koszykarek o różnym stopniu zaawansowania sportowego. Now Lek 2005; 74(4): 373-375. 8. Chalcarz W, Merkiel S, Szajek G: Wiedza o bogatych źródłach żelaza w wybranych produktach spożywczych u koszykarek o różnym stopniu zaawansowania sportowego. Now Lek, 2005; 74(4): 376-378. 9. Merkiel S, Chalcarz W: Wiedza żywieniowa rodziców dzieci przedszkolnych z Nowego Sącza i okolic. Część 3. Bogate źródła składników mineralnych i witamin. Nowa Pediatr 2010; 14(1): 15-20. 10. Chalcarz W, Merkiel S: Nutritional knowledge of the preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity. Part 3. Rich sources of vitamins and minerals. New Med (Wars.) 2010; 14(3): 79-83. 11. Chalcarz W, Popierz-Rydlewska N, Wudarski T: Ocena wiedzy żywieniowej poznańskich kajakarzy o bogatych źródłach witamin i składników mineralnych. Roczn PZH 2011; 62(4): 403-40. 12. Chalcarz W, Marzęcka A, Merkiel S, Popierz-Rydlewska N, Godyń-Swędzioł R: Nutritional know-ledge of pregnant women from Kraków. Part 1. General principles of nutrition during pregnancy. New Med (Wars.) 2010; 14(3): 75-78. 13. Kunachowicz H, Nadolna I, Przygoda B, Iwanow K: Tabele składu i wartości odżywczej. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa 2005. 14. Poręba R, Drews K, Karowicz-Bilińska A et al.: Stanowisko Zespołu Ekspertów Polskiego Towarzystwa Ginekologicznego w zakresie suplementacji witamin i mikroelementów podczas ciąży. Ginekol Pol 2011; 82: 550-553. 15. Szostak-Węgierek D: Znaczenie prawidłowego żywienia kobiety w ciąży. Żyw Człow Metab, 2004; 41(2): 160-167. 16. Słomko Z, Hasik J, Blumska-Hepner K et al.: Żywienie kobiet ciężarnych. In: Hasik J, Gawęcki J (Eds.): Żywienie człowieka zdrowego i chorego. PWN, Warszawa 2008; 48-85. 17. Durka A: Żywienie kobiet w ciąży. Położ Nauka Prakt 2008; 2: 32-40. 18. Chalcarz W, Hodyr Z: Wiedza żywieniowa rodziców dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym. Materiały X Jubileuszowej Międzynarodowej Konferencji Naukowej: Uwarunkowania środowiskowe zdrowia dzieci. Legnica 1-2 czerwca 2001 roku, 117-121. 19. Jarosz M, Bułhak-Jachymczyk B (red.): Normy żywienia człowieka. Podstawy prewencji otyłości i chorób niezakaźnych. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa 2008. 20. Williamson CS: Nutrition in pregnancy. British Nutrition Fundation – Nutrition Bulletin 2006; 31: 28-59. 21. Picciano MF, McGuire MK: Dietary supplements during pregnancy: need, efficacy, and safety. [In:] Lammi-Keefe CJ, Couch SC, Philipson EH (Eds.): Handbook of nutrition and pregnancy. Humana Press 2008. 22. McGinley C, Shafat A, Donnelly AE: Does Antioxidant Vitamin Supplementation Protect against Muscle Damage? Sports Medicine 2009; 39(12): 1011-1032. 23. Szostak-Węgorek D, Cichocka A: Żywienie kobiet w ciąży. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa 2005.
otrzymano: 2012-02-03
zaakceptowano do druku: 2012-03-05

Adres do korespondencji:
*Wojciech Chalcarz
Zakład Żywności i Żywienia Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego w Poznaniu
ul. Droga Dębińska 7, 61-555 Poznań
tel.: +48 (61) 835-52-87
e-mail: chalcarz@awf.poznan.pl

New Medicine 1/2012
Strona internetowa czasopisma New Medicine