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© Borgis - New Medicine 2/2012, s. 34-38
*Wojciech Chalcarz1, Sylwia Merkiel1, Agnieszka Marzęcka2, Renata Godyń-Swędzioł2
Nutritional knowledge of pregnant women from Kraków. Part 4. Nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases1)
1Food and Nutrition Department of the Eugeniusz Piasecki University School of Physical Education in Poznań
Head of the Department: Dr hab. Wojciech Chalcarz, prof. nadzw. AWF
2Gabriel Narutowicz City Specialist Hospital in Kraków
Director: dr n. med. Renata Godyń-Swędzioł
Summary
Aim. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases in pregnant women from Kraków.
Material and methods. Questionnaires on the knowledge about nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases were filled in by 115 pregnant women who were admitted to Gabriel Narutowicz City Specialist Hospital in Kraków. Statistical analysis was carried out by means of the IBM SPSS Statistics 19. The studied population was divided according to the trimester of pregnancy.
Results. Statistically significant differences were found for the answers to question whether decreasing food intake may prevent obesity. All women in the first trimester of pregnancy knew the correct answer to this question, whereas the percentages of correct answers given by the women in the second and the third trimester were 73.1% and 66.7%, respectively.
Conclusions. The studied pregnant women, irrespective of the trimester of pregnancy, were characterised by a high level of knowledge about nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases. Most probably, such a high level of knowledge in this field is the result of spreading in the mass media the information about the importance of nutritional factors in diet-related diseases prevention.
INTRODUCTION
In the nutritional recommendations for pregnant women little attention is paid to preventing diet-related diseases. In the books on nutrition during pregnancy this issue is not highlighted although it is well documented that the food intake during pregnancy influences the offspring’s food preferences (1-3) and that mothers’ food habits have major impact on their children’s food habits (4-9). There is also evidence that food habits influence the risk of diet-related diseases in children as early as from the first years of life (10, 11). Therefore, it is essential to follow nutritional guidelines, especially in children genetically predisposed to diet-related diseases. That is why knowledge about nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases is indispensable to women both during pregnancy as well as at each stage of their children’s lives.
The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases in pregnant women from Kraków.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Questionnaires on the knowledge about nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases were filled in by 115 pregnant women who were admitted to Gabriel Narutowicz City Specialist Hospital in Kraków. For this purpose, a questionnaire from our previous studies was adapted (12-17). Characteristics of the studied pregnant women were given in our previous article (18).
This study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Poznan University of Medical Sciences.
Statistical analysis was carried out by means of the IBM SPSS Statistics 19. The studied population was divided according to the trimester of pregnancy. Qualitative variables were presented in contingency tables. Statistical significance was determined using Pearson’s chi-square test, except for the variables with more than 20% of cells with an expected frequency of less than five. In this case, the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05.
RESULTS
Table 1 shows the studied pregnant women’s correct answers to the questions concerning nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases according to the trimester of pregnancy. Statistically significant differences were found for the answers to question 9, whether decreasing food intake may prevent obesity. Post hoc tests did not show statistically significant differences between the pairs of trimesters. All women in the first trimester of pregnancy knew the correct answer to this question, whereas the percentages of correct answers given by the women in the second and the third trimester were 73.1% and 66.7%, respectively.
Table 1. The studied pregnant women’s correct answers to the questions concerning nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases according to the trimester of pregnancy. Results given in [%].
No.Correct answersTrimester of pregnancyAll women
(n=115)
The first
(n=14)
The second
(n=75)
The third
(n=26)
1Inadequate food habits increase the risk of osteoporosis78.677.384.679.1
2Inadequate food habits increase the risk of chronic gastric and duodenal ulcer100.089.3100.093.0
3Inadequate food habits increase the risk of diabetes92.992.084.690.4
4Inadequate food habits increase the risk of cancer50.056.050.053.5
5Inadequate food habits increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases92.394.796.294.8
6Inadequate food habits increase the risk of atherosclerosis100.093.3100.095.7
7Inadequate food habits increase the risk of obesity100.0100.0100.0100.0
8Adequate weight maintenance is important in the prevention of diet-related diseases42.973.3 73.169.3
9Decreasing food intake may prevent obesity*100.066.7 73.171.9
10Preventing obesity is beneficial to health100.0100.0100.0100.0
11High saccharose intake increases dental caries64.370.776.971.3
12Unrefined food should not be exchanged for refined food64.365.365.465.2
13Fried meat should be avoided to prevent diet-related diseases92.993.396.293.9
14Boiled meat should be eaten to prevent diet-related diseases100.096.0100.097.4
15Stewed meat should be eaten to prevent diet-related diseases84.688.084.686.8
16Salt intake should be reduced to prevent hypertension78.682.780.881.7
17Intake of animal fat and cholesterol rich foods should be reduced to prevent myocardial infarction100.097.392.396.5
18Alcohol intake should be reduced to prevent myocardial infarction100.090.792.392.2
19Vegetable oil prevents atherosclerosis85.777.361.574.8
20Animal fat increases the risk of atherosclerosis100.089.380.888.7
21Fish fat prevents atherosclerosis92.977.373.178.3
22Pregnant women should reduce cholesterol intake71.470.753.867.0
23Preventing overweight and obesity should start in childhood78.654.761.559.1
Bold type denotes statistical significance at p≤0.05.
*Post hoc tests did not show statistically significant differences between the pairs of trimesters.
DISCUSSION
The studied pregnant women’s level of knowledge about nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases was high, similarly to their level of knowledge about general principles of nutrition during pregnancy (18). The mean percentages of correct answers given by the studied population ranged from 81.8% in the women in the third trimester of pregnancy to 85.7% in the women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Most probably, such a high level of knowledge is the result of spreading in the mass media the information about the importance of nutritional factors in diet-related diseases prevention. It also confirms previous observations that women are more interested in nutritional guidelines than men and are willing to modify their diets according to those guidelines (19-21). Moreover, women pay more attention to weight maintenance and to health-giving properties of food (19, 21-25).

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Piśmiennictwo
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otrzymano: 2012-05-07
zaakceptowano do druku: 2012-05-25

Adres do korespondencji:
*Wojciech Chalcarz
Zakład Żywności i Żywienia AWF w Poznaniu
ul. Droga Dębińska 7, 61-555 Poznań
tel.: +48 (61) 835-52-87
e-mail: chalcarz@awf.poznan.pl

New Medicine 2/2012
Strona internetowa czasopisma New Medicine