Ludzkie koronawirusy - autor: Krzysztof Pyrć z Zakładu Mikrobiologii, Wydział Biochemii, Biofizyki i Biotechnologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Kraków

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© Borgis - Postępy Nauk Medycznych 12/2012, s. 947-952
*Włodzimierz Sekuła, Maciej Ołtarzewski
Żywienie w polskich gospodarstwach domowych o dochodach zbliżonych do minimum egzystencji
Diet in Polish households with incomes close to existence minimum
Laboratory of Food and Nutrition Economy in Department of Nutrition and Dietetics with the Clinic of Metabolic Diseases and Gastroenterology, National Food and Nutrition Institute, Warsaw
Head of Institute: prof. Mirosław Jarosz, MD, PhD
Streszczenie
Wstęp. GUS wyznacza zakres ubóstwa materialnego w Polsce, a pojęcie „minimum egzystencji” jest używane do identyfikacji tych gospodarstw domowych i ich członków, którzy są zagrożeni ryzykiem skrajnego ubóstwa. Do tego celu wykorzystywane są coroczne badania budżetów gospodarstw domowych.
Cel. Przedstawienie, analiza, interpretacja i skomentowanie danych dotyczących diety najuboższego segmentu polskiej populacji.
Materiał i metody.] Wykorzystując niepublikowane wyniki badań budżetów gospodarstw domowych w 2010 roku, dotyczące spożycia żywności przez gospodarstwa o najniższych dochodach, dokonano obliczenia energii i składników odżywczych. Zawartość energii z diety została porównana ze średnioważoną normą na energię (ang. estimated energy requirement – EER).
Wyniki. Zaobserwowano, że zawartość energii w dietach w gospodarstwach o najniższych dochodach w Polsce w 2010 roku pokrywa jedynie 80% normy na energię. Jest to dowód niewystarczającego spożycia żywności w tej grupie i braku bezpieczeństwa żywnościowego.
Wnioski. W świetle wyników badania istnieje wysokie prawdopodobieństwo występowania niedożywienia w najuboższej grupie polskich gospodarstw domowych. W celu identyfikacji osób dotkniętych niedożywieniem potrzebne są specjalne badania sposobu żywienia i stanu odżywienia.
Summary
Introduction.] The Central Statistical Office determines the extent of material poverty in Poland and the concept of an “existence minimum” is used to identify those households and their members which are at the risk of extreme poverty. Results of an annual household budget surveys are used for this purpose.
Aim. Providing, analysing, interpreting and commenting data on the diet of the poorest segment of the Polish population.
Material and methods. Unpublished results of the household budget surveys carried out in 2010 referring to food consumption by the lowest income households were used and converted into energy and nutrients. Dietary energy content was compared with weighted average representing estimated energy requirement (EER).
Results. It was found that the energy content of the diet of the lowest income household group in Poland in 2010 covered only in some 80% estimated energy requirement. That was an evidence of undernourishment in this group and of food insecurity.
Conclusions. In view of the results of the study there is a strong possibility of undernutrition among the poorest group of the Polish households. To identify however those affected by undernutrition a special survey of nutritional habits and nutritional status is required.
INTRODUCTION
Central Statistical Office since the half of the 1990s regularly publishes its estimates of the extent of the risk of material poverty in Poland based on different indicators and the concept of an “existence minimum” is used to identify these households and their members which are at the risk of extreme poverty. Existence minimum represents a normative basket of the goods and services satisfying only these needs which can’t be postponed and the food needs and the housing needs dominate in this basket (1-3).
The cost of the basket is regularly calculated and presented by the Institute of Labour and Social Affairs and the current retail prices of its content are taken into account in this work. The results of the Institute’s calculations refer to the two biggest, in terms of the number, socio-economic household groups in Poland, i.e. employees’ households which derive their income from hired work in a private or public sector and the pensioners’ households.
The cost of the existence minimum estimated for 2010 for a single person employee household amounted to 472.72 Polish zloty per month and food and housing combined covered approximately 88% of it. This cost was valued at 447.54 for a single person pensioner household and food and housing costs covered over 86% of it (4). The money value of the existence minimum varies depending on the size and the composition of the household: thus, existence minimum basket for employee household consisting of an adult man and adult woman costs 794.20 zl per month (381.88 zl per person) and this cost increases to 2069.83 zloty for a five-person employee household (413.97 zloty per person).
With respect to pensioners, the value of existence minimum for two-person household amounts to 743.83 zloty per month and corresponds to 371.91 zloty per person.
In its activities to measure the risk of the extreme poverty the Central Statistical Office utilizes results of the household budget surveys. According to its estimates, 5.7% of all household members were at this risk in 2010 and this rate didn’t change since 2008 in contrary to over twofold decline in this respect between 2005 and 2008.
AIM OF THE STUDY
In view of still grossly insufficient detailed knowledge on the diet of the poorest segment of the population in Poland and anxiety about undernourishment the study aimed to provide, analyze, interpret and comment relevant data derived from household budget surveys supplemented by original authors’ calculations on energy and nutrient amounts from food.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Selected results of the household budget surveys carried out in 2010 were used. The surveys are organized and coordinated by the Central Statistical Office and conducted every year through several decades. 37.412 households participated in the surveys in 2010, i.e. approximately 0.3% of their total number (5). The fundamental aim of the surveys is to provide information on the living conditions of the population, i.e. available income, expenditures, food consumption, housing conditions and equipment of the households with durables. The above information is combined with the data on different demographic, social and economic characteristics of the households and their members. The surveys cover randomly selected sample of all households with the exception of those living in institutional households. Households of members of the diplomatic corps of foreign countries are also excluded from the surveys.
The surveys are conducted through the use of monthly rotation which means that each month different households participate in them. Each participating survey keeps a special diary for a month, where registers incomes, expenditures and food quantities purchased, obtained free or derived from individual farm, garden or business activity. The methodology used doesn’t include however food quantities consumed in catering establishments, canteens, hospitals, nurseries, kindergartens, etc. These feature is common for household budget surveys in many countries and originates from the fact that expenditures on eating out of the household are intentionally underestimated (5).
Aggregated results of the surveys are presented in annual reports of the Central Statistical Office, in statistical yearbooks and in other data sources.
The National Food and Nutrition Institute has been for many years engaged in collaboration with the CSO and thus has been provided with the results of the surveys including also those which are not published (6-9). Such ones were used in the study. They included data on monthly per person food quantities available in the lowest income households, i.e. the lowest decile group in 2010 and in 2000. These data were converted into energy and nutrients through energy and nutrient conversion coefficients worked out at the Institute with the use of the national Food Composition Tables (10) and then compared with weighted average representing estimated energy requirement EER calculated for general population (11, 12).
National averages on household food consumption and on energy and nutrients amounts available for consumption per household member served as the reference points also.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The lowest decile in 2010 included households with available incomes below 496 zloty per person/ /month which were thus only a bit higher than the cost of the existence minimum for a single-person employee household amounting to 472.72 zloty. In fact, however, the average available income in this decile amounted to only 289.34 zloty per person and was nearly 40% lower compared to the cost of the existence minimum.
Due to evident budget constraints, the lowest income household group was able to consume food basket weighting 31.37 kg/month compared to 37.05 kg/month which represented the national average. Relative difference reached not less than – 15%. Negative difference in total food quantities consumed per person per month in this group resulted from lower consumption of all foods except bread, potatoes and sugar. Bread and potato consumption by the households in the lowest income decile were higher compared to the average for all households while the consumption of sugar was equal to the average (tab. 1).
Table 1. Household food consumption in the lowest income group in 2010 in relation to national average.
Monthly per person
Food productsUnitLowest income decileNational averageRelative difference
(National average = 100) – %
Breadkg5.024.677.0
Pastrieskg0.420.69-64.3
Flourkg0.850.88-3.5
Groats and flakes, ricekg0.340.41-20.6
Pastakg0.310.36-16.1
Potatoeskg5.134.973.1
Vegetables and productskg3.865.19-34.5
Fruit and productskg2.504.40-76.1
Meat, offals and productskg4.565.56-21.9
of which: meatkg2.493.09-24.1
of which: porkkg1.131.41-24.3
beef and vealkg0.060.16-158.3
poultrykg1.291.52-17.8
Meat productskg1.972.35-19.3
of which: highest quality meat productskg0.380.66-73.7
Fish and productskg0.260.45-73.1
Total edible fats: kg1.161.35-16.6
Animal fats (excl. butter)kg0.140.15-7.1
Butterkg0.140.27-92.9
Vegetable fats and oilskg0.880.93-5.9
Liquid milk and milk beveragesl3.904.35-11.5
Cheese, totalkg0.580.94-62.1
Cream and creamerskg0.310.38-22.6
Eggsno.10.9712.81-16.8
Sugarkg1.301.300.0
Confectionerykg0.220.39-77.3
Source: Household Budget Surveys, 2010 (National avarages). Food consumption in the lowest income decile – unpublished results of the household budget surveys.
The largest negative differences were observed for beef and veal, confectionery, butter, the highest quality meat products, and fruit and products.
The lowest income household group was able to consume only 2.5 kg of fruit and products per person per month, i.e. less than 60% of the average quantity for all households. Lower but still significant difference was observed for vegetable consumption.

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Piśmiennictwo
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otrzymano: 2012-09-26
zaakceptowano do druku: 2012-10-31

Adres do korespondencji:
*Włodzimierz Sekuła
National Food and Nutrition Institute
ul. Powsińska 61/63, 02-903 Warszawa
tel.: +48 (22) 550-96-44
e-mail: wsekula@izz.waw.pl

Postępy Nauk Medycznych 12/2012
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