© Borgis - New Medicine 3/2007, s. 59-67
*Miroslava Přidalová1, Jarmila Riegerová1, Iva Dostálová1, Miroslav Kopecký2, Jan Švec1
An analysis of the supporting-motoric system in male and female students of the University of Defence in Brno*
1Department of Functional Anthropology and Physiology, Faculty of Physical Culture, University of Palacký in Olomouc, Czech Republic
Head of Department: Prof. RNDr. Jarmila Riegerová, CSc.
2 Department of Anthropology and Health Education, Faculty of Education, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Head of Department: Doc. RNDr. Jan Šteigl, CSc.
Introduction. The students attending the University of Defence in Brno can be considered a specific part of population with higher intensity and quantity of physical activity. They are the future adepts of our professional army whose physical efficiency should be above average. Repeated somatic measuring was performed at the beginning and at the end of the first school year thus after they had participated in physical training for 1,5 hours five times a week and more measurements followed in further school years.
Aim. The study objective was to examine the effect of physical training incorporated into the tuition on the somatic state, respectively the motoric apparatus of male and female students of the University of Defence.
Results. The results of support-motoric apparatus analysis showed mostly serious deviations from the standard concerning the state of tonic and phasic muscles, including the parameters of foot morphology. There appeared with high frequency the muscular shortenings of tonic muscles (knee and hip flexors, in some case feet) affecting the motoric stereotypes of walking. The movement in shoulder joint was accompanied by substitutional motoric stereotypes in upper limb abduction and we found as well the substitutional motoric stereotypes in lower limb extension and abduction. The determined muscular imbalances show the disrupted muscular balance both in upper and lower part of trunk and it shows the functional overloading of shoulder girdle and cervical spine.
Discussion. The state of muscular apparatus of the students attending universities with higher intensity of physical activity shows similar trend regarding the occurrence of muscular imbalances. This fact illustrates the common trait of „Homo sedentarius" - with dominancy of muscle developing activity inappropriately incorporated into lifestyle. The female students have better state of motoric apparatus, probably due to the broader spectrum of their physical activity, which is not so much of a strength type. Developing up one´s muscles is the dominating part of physical activity of male students.
Conclusion. Compensatory exercises are not a stable part of our lifestyle. The positive effect of physical training with incorporated stretching exercises was confirmed in male students of the University of Defence in 2005. In 2006, when the compensatory exercises were eliminated from the regular regime of physical training, the state of muscular apparatus in male students worsened, particularly in the lower limbs.
Students attending the University of Defence in Brno can be considered a specific part of the population with higher intensity and quantity of physical activity [1, 2]. They are the future adepts of our professional army whose physical efficiency should be above average.
Regular application of greater volume and intensity of physical activity significantly influences formation of somatic characteristics, especially individual body fractions, i.e. induces regression of the fatty component and growth of fat-free mass [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. It provides a possibility to improve the body´s constitution and health oriented physical fitness, which also includes condition and optimal function of the supporting-motoric system.
Decisive for correct function of the supporting-motoric system is its strength as well as well-balanced function of individual muscle groups, which means balance between tonic and phasic muscles.
Muscle imbalance is related to non-economical motoric stereotypes; it is very energetically demanding for the body; its existence disables full performance, the onset of fatigue is faster, and last but not least the motion becomes non-aesthetic due to muscular overstrain. Muscle imbalance is responsible for the development of microtrauma and subsequently macrotrauma [9, 10, 11].
The gender differences in Czech, Polish and Slovak students are in many cases significant [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]. Female students have better state of motoric apparatus, probably due to the broader spectrum of their physical activity, which is not so much of a strength type. Developing one´s muscles is the dominating part of physical activity of male students.
The study objective was to examine the effect of physical training incorporated into the tuition on the somatic state, specifically the motoric apparatus of male and female students of the University of Defence in Brno.
Materials and Method
In students of the University of Defence complex diagnostics was carried out – a spectrum of 56 anthropometric parameters: longitudinal, breadth parameters, circumferential and skin fold tissue. These parameters were further used after having been processed to determinate 46 other somatic characteristics by the program ANTROPO (1996). The fraction body composition determination was done also by anthropometric methods and by bioelectrical impedance method – by one of the newest QuadScan 4000 devices.
Repeated somatic measurements were performed at the beginning and after completing the 1st year, i.e. after application of physical training 5 times a week for 1.5 hours, and examinations were subsequently performed during the other years. Most male and female students stated in the questionnaire that they individually perform physical activities 2-4 times a week for 40-90 minutes. In males, they most often included exercising in a fitness centre, sports and martial arts. Female students most often perform aerobics and go to a fitness centre in the framework of leisure time activities.
In the period of 2004-2006, i.e. for 3 years, the condition of the supporting-motoric systems in male and female students of the University of Defence in Brno were evaluated. The test battery consists of shortened and weakened muscle tests and also provides analyses of some of the motoric stereotypes as well as hypermobility. We examined 11 muscle groups tending to shortening, 6 muscle groups tending to be weakened and made 4 hypermobility examinations [20, 21].
The average age at entry measurement in male students was 21.3 years (n = 40) and in female students 20.3 years (n = 19). Monitoring of male and female students started in November 2004 at the University of Defence in Brno. The first control measurement was performed in September 2005 and then in April 2006. Measurements took place under standard conditions with the approval of measured students. There were 16 male students and 19 female students who participated regularly in the measurements.
For statistical data processing the programs ANTROPO and STATISTIKA version 6 were used.
Somatic characteristics of observed files are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1.
Table 1. The basic descriptive characteristics of stature, weight and components of somatotypes (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorfphy) in screened groups
| ||Measurement I.||Measurement II.||Measurement III.|
Fig. 1. The average somatotypes in groups
Male students on average seem in terms of constitution to be endomorphic mesomorphs. In this category, there are 50 % somatotypes; 43 % belong to the category of balanced mesomorphs. Within individual years, we can see the shift of an average somatotype in a vertical direction, which represents an individual increment of the mesomorphic component in 50 % of the male students. Female students may be evaluated as mesomorphic endomorphs, although on the borders with balanced endomorphs and mesomorphs-endomorphs. 31.5 % of female students belong to the lower part of the somatograph – with a very low level of mesomorphia. An additional 26.3 % of the file seems to be of moderate type, and 36.78 % are found in the category of mesomorphs-endomorphs. A constitutional shift during the studies in female students takes place mainly in the horizontal direction.
The resulting analysis shows a high occurrence of muscle shortening of tonic muscles in male students, which affects predominantly flexion in the knee and hip joints and possibly of the foot.
Shortening of the coxa flexors in combination with shortening of the trunk erector causes specific predispositions to disturbance of dynamic stability, and the lumbar spine is extensively overloaded. If those shortenings are combined with weakened abdominal muscles, the imbalance in the spine area increases and the dynamic instability deepens. Shortening of the tensor fasciae latae muscle causes patella deviation and together with shortening of the rectus femoris muscle has a destabilising effect on the knee point (Table 2).
Table 2. The occurrence of tonic muscles shortening in beginning groups of male and female students
|Tonic muscles||Men 2004||Women 2004|
|Number (n)||(n=30, 1pr.=3.33%)||(n=20, 1pr.=5%)|
|m. iliopsoas - D||10||33.33||9||45.00|
|m. iliopsoas - S||10||33.33||9||45.00|
|m. rectus femoris - D||27||90.00*||14||70.00|
|m. rectus femoris - S||26||86.67*||15||75.00|
|m. tensor fasc. l.- D||18||60.00**||6||30.00|
|m. tensor fasc. l.- S||20||66.67**||5||25.00|
|m. triceps surae - D||12||40.00**||4||20.00|
|m. triceps surae - S||11||36.67*||4||20.00|
|mm. adductores - D||7||23.33||4||20.00|
|mm. adductores - S||7||23.33||4||20.00|
|mm. flexores genu-D||30||100.00**||16||80.00|
|mm. flexores genu-S||30||100.00**||15||75.00|
|m. pect. major - D||17||56.67**||8||40.00|
|m. pect. major - S||16||53.33**||6||30.00|
|m. erector spinae||7||23.33||4||20.00|
|test of arms-D down||5||16.67||1||5.00|
|test of arms-S down||3||10.00||1||5.00|
|m. trapezius - D||15||50.00**||7||35.00|
|m. trapezius - S||16||53.33**||6||30.00|
|trunk sideways - D||0||0.00||2||10.00|
|trunk sideways - S||0||0.00||2||10.00|
D – dexter,
S – sinister,
** – significant difference between gender,
p <0.01; * – significant difference between gender,
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