*Éva Zitás1, Judit Mèszáros2
Prevention possibilities of the most common childhood skin disorders
1PhD student, Doctoral School, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
Head of Department: Gyula Domján, PhD
2Department of Nursing Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
Head of Faculty: prof. Zoltán Zsolt Nagy, MD, PhD
Introduction. This paper reviews the basic principles of childhood skin disease treatment and prevention as well as the most common factors affecting recovery and recurrences.
Aim. The symptoms, the frequency of occurrence and the possibilities for prevention of the disorders are examined, while the most important factors affecting recovery are also reviewed.
Material and methods. In this paper we examine the data of 230 children, all treated for skin disease, and all under the age of two. The applied method is the evaluation of answers collected from questionnaires. The questions are related to the skin symptoms (type, time and place of appearance, whether it is a primary symptom or a recurrence, etc.) and also to the circumstances (family anamnesis, housing conditions, diet, skincare practices, materials in direct contact with the skin, clothing, toys, etc.), which could be brought into connection with the skin symptoms.
Results. The results of the examination are shown on charts. Based on the evaluation of the results, it can be concluded that diaper dermatitis (D.D.) and atopic dermatitis (A.D.) are the two most commonly occurring skin diseases among children under the age of two. For the development of A.D., hereditary disposition is required. Both are prone to recurrence, however, the recurrence of D.D. is irrespective of seasons, while the recurrence of A.D. is mainly expected in the heating period. No connection with dietary habits was found.
Conclusions. From the results it can be concluded, that in the recovery process of all the skin diseases, proper skin care plays an important part. In the case of both D.D. and A.D., avoiding all drying effects (bathing frequently in warm soapy water) is highly recommended. Using washing cream, bathing oil, and greasy body milk is advisable. In order to prevent recurrences, it is important to make sure that the degree of humidity in the air is adequate. Sunshine and spending time in the fresh air also prove beneficial. It is favourable to wear clothing which is made of light, soft and natural materials. The condition of the skin is worsened by toys (plasticine) made from materials which cause irritation, as is by playing in the sand. Keeping pets is inadvisable only in case the child also suffers from a chronic respiratory disease (asthma, hay-fever).
In infancy and babyhood there is a very high incidence rate of skin disease. Recovery time and any possible recurrences are dependent upon proper skin care, as well as upon treatment, but it is also influenced by diet, the degree of humidity in the air, and the materials which come into direct contact with the skin (clothing, toys, animals). This paper is going to give a detailed account of the basic principles of skin care and treatment, as well as the possibilities for prevention.
In our research we examined the ever increasing skin symptoms in children, the frequency of occurrence of the phenomenon as well as the possibilities for prevention.
The objective of the study is to research how the recovery of the health of the skin may be influenced by skin care, dietary habits, the degree of humidity in the air and the materials in direct contact with the skin (clothing, toys, animals).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The survey was conducted in Budapest in the autumn of 2015, by evaluating the data collected from questionnaire made by ourselves, detected 230 children out of 405 cases. The data appearing in the survey are those of children under the age of 2. The calculation results were set in percentage to the nearest whole number. The questions were divided into nine main categories: 1. skin symptoms, 2. family anamnesis, 3. housing conditions, 4. dietary habits, 5. leisure time, 6. skin care practices, 7. clothing, 8. the material of the toys, 9. keeping pets.
1. Skin symptoms: type; at what age; in which season; in which localization it started; first symptom, or recurrence (fig. 1-6).
Fig. 1. The time of appearance of the skin symptoms
Fig. 2. The season of appearance of the skin symptoms
Fig. 3. The type of appearance of the skin symptoms
Fig. 4. Localization of the skin symptoms
Fig. 5. Frequency of recurrences
Fig. 6. Diagnosis
2. Family anamnesis: 59% of the family anamnesis proved negative. In the families there was a 24% occurrence of eczema, a 4% occurrence of asthma, and a 13% occurrence of hay-fever.
3. Housing condition: 100% of the families use piped (hard) water. 52% of the families do not use evaporator units. 42% use units to be fitted on the radiators, and 7% use electric devices. 54% of the families use district heating, 41% gas convector and 3-2% use electric and traditional heating.
4. Dietary habits: animal protein (cow’s milk and eggs) was introduced to 9% of the children under the age of 1 year; the majority of the children were given animal protein after the age of 1 or 1 and a half years (fig. 7, 8).
Fig. 7. Distribution of breastfeeding
Fig. 8. Distribution of feeding with baby formula
5. Leisure time (time spent in the open air): according to the survey, all the children spend time in the fresh air every day.
6. Skin care practices: the children are generally given a bath every day, bathing time in most cases lasts for 10-15 minutes. Baby care products are used for hair wash and bathing. All the families use disposable nappies.
7. Clothing: in 88% of the cases, underwear was made from cotton, in 12% of the cases, from blended fabric. 78% of the outerwear was made from cotton, 17% from wool, and 5% from blended fabric.
8. Toys: all the children’s furry toys were made from synthetic fibre.
9. Keeping pets: 28% of the families have small mammal pets (hamsters, guinea pigs, cats), 72% of the families have no pets.
Based on the data gained from the survey questionnaire, as well as the personal conversations with the children’s parents, it can be proved that 57% of the children, under the age of two, who took part in the study, demonstrated skin symptoms. In the case of infants, the two most common conditions were D.D. and later, A.D.
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