Ludzkie koronawirusy - autor: Krzysztof Pyrć z Zakładu Mikrobiologii, Wydział Biochemii, Biofizyki i Biotechnologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Kraków

Chcesz wydać pracę habilitacyjną, doktorską czy monografię? Zrób to w Wydawnictwie Borgis – jednym z najbardziej uznanych w Polsce wydawców książek i czasopism medycznych. W ramach współpracy otrzymasz pełne wsparcie w przygotowaniu książki – przede wszystkim korektę, skład, projekt graficzny okładki oraz profesjonalny druk. Wydawnictwo zapewnia szybkie terminy publikacji oraz doskonałą atmosferę współpracy z wysoko wykwalifikowanymi redaktorami, korektorami i specjalistami od składu. Oferuje także tłumaczenia artykułów naukowych, skanowanie materiałów potrzebnych do wydania książki oraz kompletowanie dorobku naukowego.

Poniżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu. Informacja nt. dostępu do pełnej treści artykułu tutaj
© Borgis - New Medicine 1/2004, s. 8-11
Wojciech Chalcarz, Monika Radzimirska-Graczyk, Marek J. Janczewski
General Nutritional Knowledge in Children and Adolescents Practicing Fencing
Department of Food and Nutrition University School of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland
Head of Department: Prof. Wojciech Chalcarz, MD, PhD
Summary
Aim. The purpose of this paper was an assessment of general nutritional knowledge among children and adolescents practicing fencing. The research examined knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients, their roles in body functioning, composition of diet and its assessment, and nutrition in children and adolescents.
Material and method. A population of 141 children and adolescents practicing fencing from Primary School No 42 and Secondary School No 40 in Poznań was targeted. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 11.5 PL for Windows computer programme using the independence test in the contingency tables. In total, 35 different factors that could influence nutritional knowledge were analysed. To preserve clarity of the results the answers are presented as a 25% grid – i.e. 0-25.0%, 25.1%-50.0%, 50.1%-75.0% and 75.1-100.0%.
Results. From the 35 analysed factors the need to acquire general nutritional knowledge had the greatest impact on the answers. Nutritional knowledge among the population studied was generally poor. Most of the correct answers were given by those who had the need to acquire general nutritional knowledge and the least by those who did not know whether they had such a need.
Conclusion. The results show a need to improve general nutritional knowledge among the population studied, which should be addressed within the curriculum.
INTRODUCTION
One of the most important issues of the science of nutrition today is an assessment of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of various groups of people, particularly children and adolescents practicing sport. Based on this a comprehensive educational nutritional programmes can be constructed and implemented. Such education would enable an individual to make a conscious choice of a healthy diet.
A sound diet minimises the morbidity of metabolic illnesses, improves both physical and psychological well-being, optimises physical and mental work ability. Good nutrition is particularly important in children and adolescents practicing sport. It is generally acknowledged that nutritional knowledge is reflected in dietary behaviour (1, 2, 3, 4).
This study is a part of ongoing research in our Department relating to the nutritional knowledge of various groups of people in Poland (5, 6, 7, 8, 9).
The purpose of this paper was an assessment of general nutritional knowledge among children and adolescents practicing fencing. The research concentrated on knowledge related to sources of nutrients, their roles in body functioning, assessment of diet, and principles of nutrition in children and adolescents.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
A population of 141 children and adolescents practicing fencing from Primary School No 42 and Secondary School No 40 in Poznań was targeted. Approval for this research was obtained from the Bioethics Committee of the Medical Academy in Poznań. The data collection took place in June 2002.
The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 11.5 PL for Windows computer programme, using the independence test in the contingency tables. In total, 35 different factors that could influence general nutritional knowledge were analysed. To preserve clarity of the results the answers were presented as a 25% grid – i.e. 0-25%, 25.1%-50%, 50.1%-75%, and 75.1-100%.
RESULTS
1. Socio-demographic characteristics of the population studied
In the total of 141 subjects there were 57.4% of boys and 42.6% of girls.
55.3% of the athletes were between 10-13 years old, and 44.7% between 13-16 years of age, which was consistent with the kind of school they were attending.
3 students (2.1%) gained the maximum – ´excellent´ results in their subjects in the previous semester, and 32 students (22.7%) ´very good´. There were 36.2% of students with ´good´ results, and 29.8% with ´sufficient´ (pass). The category of ´conditional promotion to the semester´ was found in 11 students (7.8%) and only one student was not promoted to commence next semester.
Within the studied population, 110 individuals (78%) had practiced fencing for at least 3 years. Analysis of parental educational status showed the following: 22.7% of mothers and 23.4% of fathers had a higher (university) education; 47.0% of mothers and 37.5% of fathers were high school graduates (secondary education). Vocational education was found in 28.8% of mothers and 36.7% of fathers. The smallest percentage of mothers and fathers had primary school education only 1.4% and 2.3% respectively.
2. Impact of the analysed factors on nutritional knowledge of the population studied
The need to acquire general nutritional knowledge had the strongest impact on the answers. This dependency was statistically significant. Further analysis was carried out in relation to this factor.
The second factor which also had a strong impact, but not as strong as the first one, was the need to acquire knowledge of nutrition in sport.
3. Rich sources of nutrients
The summary of the answers to questions regarding rich sources of protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, fat, vitamins and minerals is presented in Table 1. To preserve clarity of results, a 25% grid was used, as above.
Table 1. Correct answers to questions related to rich sources of protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, fat, vitamins and minerals for the population studied.
Nutrition sub-topicNumber of questionsNumber of questions where factor impact was significantCorrect answer dispersal/structure in % of the population studied 
0.0-25.025.1-50.050.1-75.075.1-100.0
1. Rich sources of protein1462561
2. Rich sources of fat1451670
3. Rich sources of carbohydrates1439500
4. Rich sources of dietary fibre14210400
5. Rich sources of vitamins1465432
6. Rich sources of minerals1428600
The need to acquire general nutritional knowledge had a significant impact on 24 answers from the whole questionnaire. These can be grouped as follows:
– answers to 6 questions regarding vegetables, fruit, meat, poultry, sweets and alcohol as rich sources of protein. Only meat and poultry are considered to be rich sources of protein (1, 2, 4, 10).
– answers to 5 questions regarding rich sources of fat: grains and their derivatives, vegetables, fruit, pulses, and fat derived from plants. Of the listed products only the last item is considered to be a rich source of fat, although among the pulses the soybean is considered to be a good source of fat (1, 2, 4, 10).
– answers to 3 questions on rich sources of carbohydrates, listing fish, eggs, and non-alcoholic beverages. None of these is, of course, a rich source of carbohydrates (1, 2, 4, 10).
– answers to 2 questions regarding rich sources of dietary fibre, mentioning eggs and non-alcoholic beverages as sources. As in paragraph above, none of these is a source of dietary fibre (1, 2, 4, 10).
– answers to 6 questions on rich sources of vitamins. The list contained: vegetables and fruit, poultry, fish, sweets and alcoholic beverages. Of this list only sweets, with the exception of chocolate, and alcoholic beverages, are recognised as not being rich sources of vitamins (1, 2, 4, 10).
– answers to 2 questions on rich sources of minerals, listing vegetables and alcoholic beverages. Of this list, only vegetables are considered to be a rich source of minerals (1, 2, 4, 10, 11).
It is a matter of concern that in 50% of the population studied there were no correct answers regarding rich sources of dietary fibre, carbohydrates or minerals. Up to 75% (grid 50.1-75%) of the respondents gave correct answers to 7 questions related to rich sources of fat. For 1 question related to rich sources of protein and 2 others regarding rich sources of vitamins more than 75.1% (grid 75.1-100%) of the individuals provided correct answers.

Powyżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu, do którego możesz uzyskać pełny dostęp.

Płatny dostęp do wszystkich zasobów Czytelni Medycznej

Aby uzyskać płatny dostęp do pełnej treści powyższego artykułu oraz WSZYSTKICH około 7000 artykułów Czytelni, należy wprowadzić kod:

Kod (cena 30 zł za 30 dni dostępu) mogą Państwo uzyskać, przechodząc na tę stronę.
Wprowadzając kod, akceptują Państwo treść Regulaminu oraz potwierdzają zapoznanie się z nim.

Piśmiennictwo
1. Chalcarz W.: Praktyczne wykorzystanie wpółczesnych zaleceń żywieniowych w kulturze fizycznej. W: Kiełbasiewicz-Drozdowska I., Siwiński W. (red.): Teoria i metodyka rekreacji ruchowej. (Zagadnienia podstawowe). AWF Poznań, Seria: Podręczniki nr 51, Poznań 2001; 141-163. 2. Gawęcki J., Hryniewiecki L.: Żywienie człowieka. Podstawy nauki o żywieniu. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Wyd. 3, Warszawa 2003. 3. Griffin J.: Wspomaganie dietetyczne. Medicina Sportiva, 2001; 5(1), 49-51. 4. Raczyński G., Raczyńska B.: Sport i żywienie. Resortowe Centrum Metodyczno-Szkoleniowe Kultury Fizycznej i Sportu, Warszawa 1996 r. 5. Chalcarz W., Hodyr Z., Drabikowska-Śrama A.: Wiedza żywieniowa pracowników przedszkoli. Nowa Medycyna 1999; 6(7),62-67. 6. Chalcarz W., Horst-Sikorska W., Śrama A., Stasiak M.: Wpływ wybranych czynników na wiedzę z zakresu żywienia i aktywności fizycznej kobiet chorych na osteoporozę. Post. Osteoartr. 1998; 10,109-116. 7. Chalcarz W., Radzimirska-Graczyk M.: Ocena wiedzy żywieniowej i sposobu żywienia młodych tenisistów. W: Siwiński W. (Red.): Z zagadnień współczesnej kultury fizycznej i turystyki, PDW Ławica, Poznań 1997; 155-162. 8. Chalcarz W., Szymańska H., Borowiak M., Chmielowiec J.: Wpływ wybranych czynników środowiskowych na wiedzę żywieniową młodzieży szkół średnich w profilaktyce osteoporozy. W: Kunicki B. J., Szyszka K. (Red.): Kultura fizyczna w promocji i doskonaleniu zdrowia. Materiały z konferencji, Gorzów 1966; str.141-148. 9. Chalcarz W., Śrama A.: Wpływ wybranych czynników środowiskowych na wiedzę żywieniową uczniów poznańskiej Państwowej Szkoły Baletowej w profilaktyce osteoporozy. W: Siwiński W. (Red.): Z zagadnień współczesnej kultury fizycznej i turystyki, PDW Ławica, Poznań 1997; 145-154. 10. Kunachowicz H., Nadolna I., Iwanow K., Przygoda B.: Wartość odżywcza wybranych produktów spożywczych i typowych potraw. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa 1997. 11. Brzozowska A.: Składniki mineralne w żywieniu człowieka. Akademia Rolnicza, Poznań 1999. 12. Hasik J., Hryniewiecki L., Grzymisławski M.: Dietetyka. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Wydanie 3, Warszawa 1999 r. 13. Maughan R.J.: Odżywianie w sporcie: Wydatkowanie energii i bilans energetyczny. Medicina Sportiva, 2000; 4(3)169-178. 14. Suliga E.: Zachowania Zdrowotne związane z żywieniem wśród uczniów szkół średnich. Nowiny Lekarskie, 2002; 2-3,103-106. 15. Wądołowska L., Słowińska M.A., Cichon R.: Diety odchudzające a stan odżywienia, spożycie energii i aktywność fizyczna młodzieży. Nowiny Lekarskie, 2002; 1,34-39. 16. Herbold N. H., Frates S. E.: Update of nutrition guidelines for the teen: trends and concerns. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 2000; 12 (4),303-309. 17. Lu S. C., Wu W. H., Lee C. A. i wsp.: LDL of Taiwanese vegetarians are less oxidizable than those of omnivores. J. Nutr. 2000; 130(6),1591-1596. 18. Rajaram S., Sabate J.: Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Nutrition 2000; 16(7-8),531-533. 19. Paradowska-Stankiewicz I., Trafalska E., Grzybowski A.: Realizacja zapotrzebowania na wybrane witaminy i składniki mineralne w diecie młodzieży. Nowa Medycyna. 2000; 7(108),19-20.
Adres do korespondencji:
chalcarz@alpha.net.pl

New Medicine 1/2004
Strona internetowa czasopisma New Medicine