© Borgis - Postępy Nauk Medycznych 1/2017, s. 54
One in two postmenopausal women and one in five older men are at risk for a low-energy fracture. Bone fractures exacerbate the course of underlying diseases and significantly increase mortality, especially in men.
The risk of bone fractures is influenced by a number of factors, including bone mineral density (BMD), bone quality and non-skeletal agents affecting the incidence of falls. Each of these factors is under, at least partial, genetic control. The role of genetic determinants of skeletal fractures is discussed in the article “Genetic factors, osteoporosis and bone fractures”. The authors indicate that important determinants of BMD, such as peak bone mass and the rate of age-related bone loss are genetically determined. They present current methods of genetic studies and discuss the importance of candidate genes for osteoporosis classified according to metabolic or hormonal pathways.
Most fractures, especially hip fractures, are the results of falls. The role of reduced mass and strength of skeletal muscles, particularly of lower extremities, in the rate of age-related fragility fractures is presented in the paper entitled “Sarcopenia and osteoporosis – cofactors of increased risk of falls and bone fractures”. The authors emphasize that sarcopenia, which decrease bone strength and mobility in elderly people, is the result of reduced physical activity and age-related metabolic abnormalities leading to e.g. accumulation of fat between and within muscle fibers.
Numerous bone fractures are the result of secondary osteoporosis. The authors of the article entitled “Bone fractures in cancer patients” present the mechanisms responsible for bone loss and increased incidence of skeletal fractures among patients with neoplastic diseases. They indicate that hormonal therapies used in patients with hormonally-responsive cancers as well as chemotherapy result in hypogonadism and progressive loss of bone mass. The authors remind that patients with high risk of fragility fractures should be given preventive treatment as soon as possible.
Powyżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu, do którego możesz uzyskać pełny dostęp.
Płatny dostęp do wszystkich zasobów Czytelni Medycznej