© Borgis - New Medicine 3/2010, s. 75-78
*Wojciech Chalcarz1, Agnieszka Marzęcka2, Sylwia Merkiel1, Natalia Popierz-Rydlewska1, Renata Godyń-Swędzioł2
Nutritional knowledge of pregnant women from Kraków. Part 1. General principles of nutrition during pregnancy**
1Food and Nutrition Department of the Eugeniusz Piasecki University School of Physical Education in Poznań
Head of the Department: dr hab. Wojciech Chalcarz, prof. nadzw. AWF
2Gabriel Narutowicz City Specialist Hospital in Kraków
Director: dr n. med. Renata Godyń-Swędzioł
Introduction. Assessment of nutritional knowledge in a pregnant woman is a very important and still underestimated issue of nutrition science. Monitoring their nutritional knowledge is of vital importance since it is known that imbalanced diet during pregnancy adversely affects foetus development.
Aim. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about general principles of nutrition during pregnancy in a pregnant woman from Kraków.
Material and methods. Questionnaires on general principles of nutrition during pregnancy were filled in by 115 a pregnant woman from Kraków. Statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPSS 12.0 PL for Windows computer programme. The studied population was divided according to the trimester of pregnancy.
Results. Answers to only one question, concerning attending a school of birth, were statistically significantly different depending on the trimester of pregnancy. No significantly differences were observed in the answers to questions concerning nutritional knowledge. The most correct answers, to seven questions, were given by the women in the third trimester of pregnancy.
Conclusions. The studied a pregnant woman were characterised by a high level of knowledge about general principles of nutrition during pregnancy. Despite the lack of statistically significant differences, the women in the third trimester of pregnancy had the highest level of knowledge about general principles of nutrition during pregnancy.
Pregnancy is a very important period both for mother and the developing foetus (1). The woman's dietary behaviour during this period has a decisive influence on the course of pregnancy. In particular, it is of vital importance to prepare the woman's organism for pregnancy. Before conception, which should be planned, the woman should assess her dietary habits and nutritional status, but first and foremost she should use folic acid supplementation (2, 3, 4, 5, 6). Assessment of a pregnant woman's nutritional knowledge is of great value since the studies on a pregnant woman's dietary habits (7) and nutritional knowledge published so far showed that they make numerous nutritional mistakes and their nutritional knowledge is poor (8, 9, 10).
The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about general principles of nutrition during pregnancy in a pregnant woman from Kraków.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Questionnaires on general principles of nutrition during pregnancy were filled in by 115 a pregnant woman from Kraków who were admitted to Gabriel Narutowicz City Specialist Hospital in Kraków. Questions on general information about the studied women were also included.
This study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Poznan University of Medical Sciences.
Statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPSS 12.0 PL for Windows computer programme. The studied population was divided according to the trimester of pregnancy. Qualitative variables were presented in contingency tables. Statistical significance was determined using Pearson's chi-square test, except for the variables with more than 20% of cells with an expected frequency of less than five. In this case, the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05.
Table 1 shows general information about the studied a pregnant woman according to the trimester of pregnancy. Statistically significant differences were found for the answers to the question concerning attending a school of birth. None of the women in the first and the second trimester of pregnancy attended a school of birth whereas 50.0% of women in the third trimester attended such a school.
Table 1. General information about the studied pregnant women. Results given in [%].
|No.||Parameter||Trimester of pregnancy||All women (n=115)|
|The first (n=14)||The second (n=75)||The third (n=26)|
|2.||The way of performing the job||Sedentary||61.5||47.8||41.7||48.1|
|In a standing position||0.0||0.0||4.2||1.0|
|In a standing position and involving movement||23.1||17.9||25.0||20.1|
|Sedentary and involving movement||15.4||22.4||20.8||21.2|
|4.||Number of children||None||64.3||73.3||84.6||74.8|
|5.||The current pregnancy is||The first||57.1||66.7||73.2||67.0|
|6.||The current pregnancy was planned||78.6||86.7||84.6||85.2|
|7.||Attending a school of birth||0.0a||0.0b||50.0a,b||11.3|
|8.||An intention to attend a school of birth*||57.1||54.1||65.4||57.0|
Bold type denotes statistical significance at p≤0.05.
Figures with the same superscript letters are significantly different (p≤0.05).
*It denotes the percentage of women who had not attended school of birth.
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