Ponad 7000 publikacji medycznych!
Statystyki za 2021 rok:
odsłony: 8 805 378
Artykuły w Czytelni Medycznej o SARS-CoV-2/Covid-19

Poniżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu. Informacja nt. dostępu do pełnej treści artykułu tutaj
© Borgis - New Medicine 2/2015, s. 59-61 | DOI: 10.5604/14270994.1169796
*Marcin Ciszewski1, Tomasz Czekaj1, Piotr Chojnacki2, Eligia M. Szewczyk1
New bacterial zoonotic pathogens
1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Microbiological Diagnostics, Medical University of Łódź, Poland
Head of Department: prof. Eligia M. Szewczyk, PhD
2Chair of Labour and Social Policy, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, University of Łódź, Poland
Head of Department: prof. Bogusława Urbaniak, PhD
The article presents the problem of new zoonotic bacterial pathogens posing a threat to humans. Currently, 11 pathogens responsible for causing human zoonotic diseases are being monitored by the European Union epidemiological authorities, 7 of which are bacteria: Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella spp., Escherichia coli VTEC/STEC and Coxiella burnetti. Nonetheless, many new emerging zoonotic bacteria, which are not currently monitored by ECDC might also pose a serious epidemiological problem in the foreseeable future: Streptococcus iniae, S. suis, S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and staphylococci: Staphylococcus intermedius and S. pseudintermedius. These species have just crossed the animal-human interspecies barrier. The mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. It is connected, however, with genetic variability and capability to survive in changing environment, which are the result of DNA rearrangement and horizontal gene transfer between bacterial cells. The recent substantial increase in the number of scientific publications on this subject testifies to the importance of the problem.

There are approximately 1400 pathogens which currently pose a threat to humans. Most of these pathogens are of zoonotic origin. Among them, there are the most dangerous pathogens, which broke the animal-human interspecies barrier in recent times. E.g. viruses like: HIV, H5N1 and H1H1 influenza, coronaviruses or Ebola have become a serious epidemiological problem during the last 50 years. The number of pathogenic viruses increases by approximately 25 every 10 years. Among bacteria, Helicobacter pylori, pathogenic serotypes of Escherichia coli (VTEC, EIEC, EPEC, EAggEC, DAEC, O104:H4) and Borrelia burgdorferi have emerged during last 50 years.
The primary reservoir of many species is the environment (e.g. Legionella pneumophila, Bacillus anthracis) but most of them (nearly 1000 species and varieties) originate from animal pathogens. Only about 3.5% of all etiological factors are exclusive to humans and nowadays do not have any animal or environmental reservoir. This group comprises e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treponema pallidum (1). The notion „zoonoses” is usually used to describe infections that can be transmitted directly from animals to humans. Sometimes, when a pathogen gains the ability of human-to-human transmission, we forget about its animal origin. However, it is still able to infect its primary hosts and might be transported by them. Some zoonotic bacteria have over the years achieved the ability to cause epidemic diseases, like plague (caused by Yersinia pestis) and typhoid fever (caused by Rickettsia prowazekii). New zoonotic human RNA viruses are the most frequently noted, due to their spectacular epidemics, e.g. HIV (transmitted from apes), SARS (from civets), H5N1 influenza (from birds), H1N1 influenza (from pigs) and, last but not least, the most current – Ebola virus (from bats). According to Woolhouse and Gaunt (2), the danger of new zoonotic pathogens emergence (or new varieties of already known pathogens) is one of the biggest challenges of XXI century. Taylor et al. (1) proved that animal pathogens (bacteria and fungi) pose a three-fold higher danger of becoming new etiological factor of human diseases than bacteria and fungi of other origin.
The process of evolutionary changes in the transformation of an animal pathogen into a specialized pathogen of humans has already been described by Wolfe et al. (3). Five steps constituting this process are shown in figure 1. It also demonstrates the current location of the emerging pathogens described in the article. The bases of this evolutionary process usually remain unknown but it is connected with genetic variability and obtaining new features which allow bacteria to survive and spread in a new environment. This ability mainly results from horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and DNA rearrangements (4).
Fig. 1. Scheme presenting evolutionary transformation of zoonotic pathogens, including emerging zoonotic bacterial pathogens described in this article (3 – modified).

Powyżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu, do którego możesz uzyskać pełny dostęp.
Mam kod dostępu
  • Aby uzyskać płatny dostęp do pełnej treści powyższego artykułu albo wszystkich artykułów (w zależności od wybranej opcji), należy wprowadzić kod.
  • Wprowadzając kod, akceptują Państwo treść Regulaminu oraz potwierdzają zapoznanie się z nim.
  • Aby kupić kod proszę skorzystać z jednej z poniższych opcji.

Opcja #1


  • dostęp do tego artykułu
  • dostęp na 7 dni

uzyskany kod musi być wprowadzony na stronie artykułu, do którego został wykupiony

Opcja #2


  • dostęp do tego i pozostałych ponad 7000 artykułów
  • dostęp na 30 dni
  • najpopularniejsza opcja

Opcja #3


  • dostęp do tego i pozostałych ponad 7000 artykułów
  • dostęp na 90 dni
  • oszczędzasz 28 zł
1. Taylor LH, Latham SM, Woolhouse ME: Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2001; 356: 983-989. 2. Woolhouse M, Gaunt E: Ecological origins of novel human pathogens. Crit Rev Microbiol 2007; 33: 231-242. 3. Wolfe ND, Dunavan CP, Diamond J: Origins of major human infectious diseases. Nature 2007; 447: 279-283. 4. Szewczyk EM: Kolejne patogeny zwierzęce poważnym zagrożeniem dla ludzi. Nowa Klin 2010; 17: 325-329. 5. European Food Safety Authority, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012. EFSA J 2014; 12: 20-175. 6. Koh TH, Sng LH, Yuen SM et al.: Streptococcal cellulitis following preparation of fresh raw seafood. Zoonoses Public Health 2009; 56: 206-208. 7. Weinstein MR, Litt M, Kertesz DA et al.: Invasive infections due to a fish pathogen, Streptococcus iniae. S. iniae Study Group. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 589-594. 8. Baiano JC, Barnes AC: Towards control of Streptococcus iniae. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15: 1891-1896. 9. Sun JR, Yan JC, Yeh CY et al.: Invasive infection with Streptococcus iniae in Taiwan. J Med Microbiol 2007; 56: 1246-1249. 10. Zalas-Wiecek P, Michalska A, Grabczewska E et al.: Human meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis. J Med Microbiol 2013; 62: 483-485. 11. Lun ZR, Wang QP, Chen XG et al.: Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7: 201-209. 12. Gottschalk M, Xu J, Lecours MP et al.: Streptococcus suis Infections in Humans: What is the prognosis for Western countries? (Part II). Clin Microbiol Newsl 2010; 32: 97-102. 13. Rantala S: Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia: an emerging infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 33: 1303-1310. 14. Brandt CM, Spellerberg B: Human Infections Due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Emerg Infect 2009; 49: 766-772. 15. Talan D, Staatz D, Staatz A et al.: Staphylococcus intermedius in canine gingiva and canine-inflicted human wound infections: laboratory characterization of a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27: 78-81. 16. Guardabassi L, Loeber M, Jacobson A: Transmission of multiple antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius between dogs affected by deep pyoderma and their owners. Vet Microbiol 2004; 98: 23-27. 17. Del Pace S, Savino A, Rasoini R et al.: A 72-year-old man with intermittent fever, anemia and a history of coronary and peripheral artery disease. Intern Emerg Med 2010; 5: 415-420. 18. Gerstadt K, Daly JS, Mitchell M et al.: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus intermedius Pneumonia Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. Clin Infect Dis. 1999; 29: 218-219. 19. Atalay B, Ergin F, Cekinmez M et al.: Brain abscess caused by Staphylococcus intermedius. Acta Neurochir 2005; 147: 347-348. 20. Durdik P, Fedor M, Jesenak M et al.: Staphylococcus intermedius – rare pathogen of acute meningitis. Int J Infect Dis 2010; 14: 236-238. 21. Cole LK, Kwochka KW, Kowalski JJ, Hillier A: Microbial flora and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated pathogens from the horizontal ear canal and middle ear in dogs with otitis media. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212: 534-538. 22. Kadlec K, Schwarz S, Perreten V et al.: Molecular analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius of feline origin from different European countries and North America. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65: 1826-1828. 23. Walther B, Hermes J, Cuny C et al.: Sharing more than friendship – nasal colonization with coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) and co-habitation aspects of dogs and their owners. PLoS One 2012; 7: e35197. 24. Stegmann R, Burnens A, Maranta C, Perreten V: Human infection associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST71. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65: 2047-2048. 25. Riegel P, Jesel-Morel L, Laventie B et al.: Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from animals causing human endocarditis. Int J Med Microbiol 2011; 301: 237-239. 26. Laurens C, Marouzè N, Jean-Pierre H: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pasteurella dagmatis associated in a case of community-acquired pneumonia. Mèdecine Mal Infect 2012; 42: 129-131.
otrzymano: 2015-04-02
zaakceptowano do druku: 2015-04-28

Adres do korespondencji:
*Marcin Ciszewski
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Microbiological Diagnostics, Medical University of Łódź
137 Pomorska Str., 90-235 Łódź, Poland
tel.: +48 (22) 677-93-04
e-mail: marcin.ciszewski@umed.lodz.pl

New Medicine 2/2015
Strona internetowa czasopisma New Medicine