© Borgis - New Medicine 3/1999, s. 52-53
Cezary Ranocha, Mieczysław Chmielik, Iwona Jakubczyk
Polish Paediatric ENT surgery in the XIX-th century
From Children´s ENT Clinic, Warsaw, Poland
Head of Clinic: Prof. Mieczysław Chmielik, M.D. Ph.D
In the last years of the XIX-th century Paediatric ENT surgery was separated from general ENT, because the course of the disease, management and prognosis in paediatric group is different from those observed in adults. The first Paediatric ENT ward was established in Poland in the 1895. In Warsaw Children Hospital on Kopernik street 7-beds ward for children suffering on ear, nose and throat diseases was created as a part of General Surgery Ward. The head of this ward was M.D.Z. Dobrowolski.
The greatest development of this specialisation in Poland has happened after World War II owing to Assistant Professor Jan Danielewicz. In 1947 he came to Warsaw from Lwow. He worked in close cooperation with Professors: Michałowicz, Barański and Groer. In 1953 he became a head of of Paediatric ENT Clinic in Mother and Child Institute. In 1956 in Paediatric Clinic at Litewska 16 street in Warsaw another Paediatric ENT Clinic was established. Assistant Professor Jan Danielewicz become a head of this 32-beds ward. He was responsible for creation of Paediatric ENT as a medical specialisation in the 1959. First examines were performed in 1961. From 1964 until now Paediatric ENT is a second-degree specialisation and can be performed after examinations of first degree. No less then 3 years practice in Paediatric ENT ward is a minimal requirement. The programme of this specialisation includes achieving fluency in the surgery of the larynx, ear, nose and paranasal sinuses (long list of adequate procedures is counted), courses such like neurology, oncology, stomatological surgery, audiology and phoniatry, allergology, exams in 2 foreign languages, and 2 final examines: practical (skill in surgery) and theoretical.
After Jan Danielewicz has retired in 1973, the head of Clinic became Professor Ewa Kossowska. From 1993 the head of the Warsaw Paediatric ENT Clinic is professor Mieczysław Chmielik. The Assistant Professors in this Clinic were such superb ENT surgeons like M. Góralówna and Professor T. Zaleski.The main interests and greatest achievements of the Clinic was: lymphoid tissue problems at children, internal oesophagotomy as the method of treatment the oesophageal strictures after chemical burns, acoustic analysis of laryngeal sounds, laryngeal cicatrixes surgery, surgery of the nose and paranasal sinuses endoscopic surgery.
Five departments of Paediatric ENT in the Academy Centers were created in Poland after World War II due to great devotion and hard work of Assistant Professor Jan Danielewicz and group of other scientists and practicing doctors. In 1958 in Paediatric Clinic in Łód 30 - beds ENT ward was created. The head of this ward was Assistant Professor S. Kmita; from 1966 - to 1986 Professor H. Brzezińska. In 1970 this ward become Children´s ENT Clinic. From 1986 the head of this Clinic is Professor D. Gryczyńska.The greatest achievements of the Clinic was: ear diseases diagnostics and treatment, treatment of papillomas of the larynx at children, alergology problems, glue ear treatment at children, laryngeal cicatrixes surgery, paranasal sinuses, nose and larynx endoscopic surgery.
In 1970 Children´s ENT Clinic in Poznań was created. The head of this Clinic was Assistant Professor R. Rafiński, then Professor A. Soboczyński (professor from 1982). From 1994 the head of this Clinic is Professor M. Grzegorowski. The greatest achievements of the Clinic and main research studies are: bronchology problemsand foreign bodies and malformations in the respiratory tract, immunology of the tonsills and treatment of papillomas of the larynx at children.
In Lublin, ENT ward was created on 1935. From 1984 it is known as the ENT Paediatric Clinic - and from 1995 as the ENT Paediatric Clinic of Phoniatry and Audiology. The head of this ward was Professor M. Brennenstuhl - Pliszczyńska and from 1993 - Professor G. Niedzielska. The main research studies performed in thic Clinic are: diagnostics and treatment of children with laryngeal cicatrixes and congenital deafness treatment and rehabilitation.
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