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© Borgis - New Medicine 3/2009, s. 53-55
*Ewa Ogłodek1, Danuta Mo?2, Aleksander Araszkiewicz1, Waldemar Placek3
Sense of Coherence in Parents Taking Care of Children With Psoriasis and Schizophrenia
1Chair and Clinic of Psychiatry of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Poland
2Individual medical practice
3Chair and Clinic of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Immunodermatology of the
3Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Poland
Summary
Aim. The salutogenic theory focuses on predictors of positive health outcomes. Antkovsky claims that the stronger a person´s sense of coherence, when confronted with a stressor, the more likely it is that the person will: be motivated to cope (meaningfulness), believe that the challenge is understood (comprehensibility) and believe that resources to cope are available (manageability). The aim of the research was to evaluate the sense of coherence in parents taking care of children with psoriasis and schizophrenia.
Material and Method. 32 parents (mothers and fathers) of patients with schizophrenia and psoriasis were examined. The patients were under the care of the Chair and Clinic of Psychiatry of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz. A survey questionnaire was used as the method of examination. In order to measure the sense of coherence, the Life Orientation Questionnaire (SOC-29) was applied.
Results. The previously mentioned relationship suggests that an increase of the sense of coherence may influence the effectiveness of dealing with the stress of having a close family member fall ill with schizophrenia and psoriasis.
Conclusions. The obtained results may be used to form a support model for families of mentally ill patients, which means that they may be used both in therapy and rehabilitation.
Introduction
Falling ill with schizophrenia and psoriasis is associated with a change in a patient´s approach to his or her immediate social environment. The patient´s family has to face the necessity of accepting everything the disease brings with it. Coherence is a factor which has a great impact on the way of fighting the disease, treatment and rehabilitation.
The "sense of coherence" (SOC) model based on Antonovsky´s concept of salutogenesis has mainly been validated in patients with psoriasis (psychosomatic illness) and schizophrenia and their families [1].
In family members of patients suffering from chronic illnesses some mental processes, particularly emotional stress, might serve as an important factor triggering mental illness [2, 3].
Antonovsky examined health-promoting factors and developed the concept of sense of coherence (SOC) to explain why some people become ill when stressed while others remain healthy. Sense of coherence is defined as „global orientation that expresses the extent to which one has a pervasive, enduring though dynamic feeling of confidence”. Sense of coherence generally expresses an individual view of the world and has three components: comprehensibility (the extent to which stimuli from one´s external and internal environment are structured, explicable and predictable) manageability (the extent to which resources are available to a person to meet the demands posed by these stimuli) and meaningfulness (the extent to which these demands are challenges worthy of investment and engagement) [4].
Aim
The aim of the research was to evaluate the sense of coherence in parents taking care of children with psoriasis and schizophrenia.
Material and Method
32 parents (mothers and fathers) of adult children with schizophrenia and psoriasis were examined. There were 16 men and 16 women in the study group. A survey was used as the method of research.
DSM-IV classification was used in the psychiatric examination of the adult children in question and paranoid schizophrenia was diagnosed.
This was followed by a survey of the parents by means of the Life Orientation Questionnaire (SOC-29).
Results
Figure 1 presents percentage distributions of the three components of sense of coherence (SOC) in the male and the female parts of the study group. It was found that the components manageability and meaningfulness are significantly higher in men than in women. The previously mentioned relationship suggests that the increase of 2 components of the sense of coherence may influence the capacity to deal effectively with the stress of having a close family member fall ill with schizophrenia and psoriasis.
Fig. 1 Sense of coherence: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness.
Discussion

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Piśmiennictwo
1. Bengtsson-Tops A et al.: The validity of Antonovsky´s Sense of Coherence measure in a sample of schizophrenic patients living in the community. J Adv Nurs. 200; 33(4): 432-8. 2. Gallagher R et al.: Self-management in older patients with chronic illness. Int J Nurs Pract. 2008; 14(5): 373-82. 3. Milliken PJ et al.: Parents of adult children with schizophrenia dealt with societal objections in order to provide the necessary care Redefining parental identity: caregiving and schizophrenia. Qual Health Res 2003; 13: 100–13. 4. Bengtsson-Tops A et al.: The structure of Antonovsky´s sense of coherence in patients with schizophrenia and its relationship to psychopathology. Scand J Caring Sci. 2005; 19(3): 280-7. 5. Bergstein M et al.: Sense of coherence among delusional patients: prediction of remission and risk of relapse. Compr Psychiatry. 2008; 49(3): 288-96. 6. Endler PC et al.: Sense of coherence and physical health. A „Copenhagen interpretation” of Antonovsky´s SOC concept. ScientificWorldJournal. 2008; 8: 451-3. 7. Griffiths CA. Sense of coherence and mental health rehabilitation. Clin Rehabil. 2009; 23(1): 72-8. 8. Lewis-Jones MS et al.: The Children´s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI): initial validation and practical use. Br J Dermatol. 1995; 132(6): 942-9. 9. Beattie PE et al.: A comparative study of impairment of quality of life in children with skin disease and children with other chronic childhood diseases. Br J Dermatol. 2006; 155(1): 145-51. 10. Milliken P.J. et al.: Parents as caregivers for children with schizophrenia: moral dilemmas and moral agency. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2003; 24(8): 757-73. 11. Miyaoka T et al.: Schizophrenia associated with psoriasis vulgaris: three case reports. Schizophr Res. 2000; 41(2): 383-6. 12. Eklund M et al.: Relationships between occupational factors and health and well-being in individuals with persistent mental illness living in the community. Can J Occup Ther. 2007; 74(4): 303-13. 13. Schmid-Ott G et al.: Stigmatization experience, coping and sense of coherence in vitiligo patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007; 21(4): 456-61.
Adres do korespondencji:
*Ewa Ogłodek
Department of Psychiatry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń,
Medical University of Bydgoszcz, Kurpińskiego Str. 19, Bydgoszcz, 85-096
tel.: 0-669-300-460
e-mail: maxeve@interia.pl

New Medicine 3/2009
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