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© Borgis - New Medicine 3/2006, s. 65-67
Ewa Pomirska, Mieczysław Chmielik
History of rhinology in poland to 1939
Department of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Head of Department: Prof. Mieczysław Chmielik MD, PhD
Summary
Summary
We present the most important facts about the history of rhinology in Poland to 1939 based on sources.
Rhinology is one of the youngest fields in medicine. Otorhinolaryngology was separated from surgery and internal diseases in the second half of the 19th century.
Prominent representatives of this new speciality were working in Poland but we must remember that the Polish territories were annexed by other countries at that time. The most famous doctors were Przemyslaw Pieniążek, Antoni Jurasz senior, Alfred Sokolowski, Jan Sędziak and Jan Szmurlo. They contributed greatly to the separation of this clinical speciality from surgery and internal diseases.
Our doctors acquired the essentials of otorhinolaryngology abroad: in Austria, France, Germany and England. The first and most famous Otolaryngology Department was started in 1861 in Vienna. Polish specialists participated in hospital training and congresses abroad, so they did not lose touch with the achievements of Western rhinology at that time.
The first description of rhinoscopy was published in 1861 in the Warsaw weekly Tygodnik Lekarski. The article was "O laryngoskopii i rynoskopii” written by Sebastian Rosicki, a doctor in a provincial hospital in Sterdynia who had done medical training in Vienna with Johan Nepomuk Czermak.
Bronislaw Taczanowski (1840-1912) was the author of the first laryngological handbook in Polish, Diagnostyka lekarska. Laryngoskopia i rynoskopia, published 1871. Tuerck and Czermak had made laryngoscopy and rhinoscopy popular in Western Europe before 1860 and the handbook by Taczanowski, the first in Polish medicine, was based on German scientific literature.
The method of nasopharynx examination with a laryngeal mirror and the invention of the rhinoscope for anterior rhinoscopy contributed to the development of rhinology. At the beginning of the 1880s rhinoscopes were widely used. One of the rhinoscopes was invented by Antoni Jurasz senior (1847-1923). He was the first in Europe to perform natural frontal sinus catheterization in 1887. Antoni Jurasz senior also constructed rhinological instruments such as the nasopharynx forceps, forceps used to reduce nasal fracture, and perfusion cannula for a maxillary sinus washout. He improved the Adams forceps so that they could be used for septoplasty and nasal fracture reduction.
Fig. 1. Examining position for doctor and patient for anterior rhinoscopy. (J. Sędziak: Choroby nosa, jego zatok oraz jamy noso-gardzielowej, Warszawa 1897, opposite page 49).
Teodor Heryng was the first in Poland to describe the method of local anaesthesia with cocaine in 1888. He admitted, however, that Przemysław Pieniążek was the first doctor who had used cocaine in a nasal polypectomy.
We must consider that university clinics and separate otolaryngology departments have had great significance on the development of that medical field. In Cracow (in the Austrian sector of partitioned Poland) assistant professor Przemyslaw Wiktor Odrowąż Pieniążek (1850-1916) organized in 1879 the first Polish nose, throat and larynx diseases department. He was allowed to deliver lectures on laryngology and rhinology at the Jagellonian University free of charge. He had the use of ten hospital beds in the Surgery Department. In 1903 Przemyslaw Pieniążek became a full professor of rhinolaryngology.
In Lvov, Antoni Jurasz senior was in 1908 appointed to a professorship in the Otolaryngology Department. Other departments and otolaryngological clinics were organized after 1918 when Poland became an independent state again.
In Warsaw, which was under Russian control at this time, the first Laryngology Department was started in 1881 at St. Roch´s Hospital. Teodor Heryng (1847-1925) was its head for sixteen years. He delivered lectures on laryngology and rhinology. Ear diseases were not treated in Heryng´s department.
In 1890 at the International Medical Congress in Berlin Teodor Heryng presented a method of diaphanoscopy: nose and sinuses transillumination with electric light. The diaphanoscopy had as many followers as opponents. In Sędziak´s opinion the most certain way to diagnose purulent maxillary sinusitis was sinus washout with 4% boric acid.
Jan Mikulicz was in 1886 the first to describe the method of sinus maxillary puncture.
The main problems in rhinology at the turn of the 19th century were scleroma, tuberculosis, syphilis, ozaena, purulent sinusitis and their complications, neoplasms, congenital choanal atresia and acquired occlusion at the choanae in consequence of specific infections.

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Adres do korespondencji:
Ewa Pomirska
Department of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University in Warsaw
00-576 Warszawa, ul. Marszałkowska 24
tel./fax +48 22 628 05 84
e-mail: laryngologia@litewska.edu.pl

New Medicine 3/2006
Strona internetowa czasopisma New Medicine