Von Willebrand factor plasma levels depend on rate of hypothermia in paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass
Systemic inflammatory response is one of the most senious complications after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Many factors including proinflammatory cytokines activation, presence of endotoxin, and activated leukocytes may lead to higher endothelial permeability, with loss of fluid into the third space. Aggregation of platelets and their adhesion to the endothelial surface may cause microemboli. The process is closely related to endothelial cell damage as well as to necrosis. The plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWf) released from Weibel-Palade bodies of necrosed endothelium correlate with postoperative morbidity and mortality. This prospective study was designed to find any correlation between cardiopulmonary bypass and plasma levels of vWf in paediatric patients operated on for congenital heart defects.
20 patients aged from 2 months to 15 years (mean value 45.85ą54.28 months) were operated on for congenital heart defects with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass in 2nd
Department of Cardiac and General Pediatric Surgery, University Medical School of Warsaw, Poland between January 31st
, 2000 and April 2nd
, 2001. Fifteen patients were female and five were male. The spectrum of defects involved atrial septal defect type secundum/partial anomalous pulmonary vein drainage (ASD2/PAPVD; n=7), ventricular septal deffect (VSD; n=12), and anomalous origin of coronary artery from pulmonary artery (Bland-White-Gerland syndrome, BWG; n=1). The characteristics of patients are summarized in table 1.
Table 1. Characteristics of patients.
|Sex (M/F)||5/15|| |
|Mean age (mo.), range||45.85 ? 54,28||(2-182)|
|Mean weight (kg), range||13.74 ? 10,33||(3.3-42)|
|CPB duration (min.)||66 ? 26,5|| |
|Aortic cross-clamping time (min.)||31.4 ? 19,9|| |
|Mean temperature (rectal, °C)||29.89 ? 2,19|| |
The extracorporeal circulation was performed using membrane oxygenators (Dideco, Mirandola, Italy). The circuit was primed with Ringer acetate (100-500 mL), 20% Mannitol (1 mg/kg), 5% Albumin (100-200 mL), 20% Albumin (100 mL), 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (20-40mL) and heparin (1 mg/kg). Fresh (max. 72 hr old) blood was used for all patients.
Anaesthesia was induced by sodium thiopental and Pipecuronium bromide and maintained with Fentanyl citrate, Izofluran and Pipecuronium bromide. Heparin (Heparinum natricum, Polfa, Warsaw, Poland) was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg after an activated clotting time of 480 seconds was achieved the cardiopulmonary bypass was commenced. The aorta was clamped and antegrade cold crystalloid cardioplegic solution (St. Thomas cardioplegic solution) at a dose of 20 ml/kg was administered. Venticular septal defects were patched with PTFE (Gore-texŽ), ASD2 were closed with direct sutures or a pericardial patch, and PAPVD with pericardial patch. The Hamilton procedure (modification of Takeuchi repair) was applied in Bland-White-Gerland syndrome. Protamine sulfate was applied to neutralize heparin. All procedures were performed by one surgeon (M.A.K.) employing bicaval cannulation technique under moderate (27-32°C) hypothermia. The perfusion rate started at 2.8 l/min/m2 and was reduced 1.0 l/min/m2 at 27°C.
Four samples (3 ml each) of blood were collected from the arterial line of each patient. A baseline sample was obtained immediately after induction of anesthesia (sample 1). Sampling was also performed 5 minutes after commencing cardiopulmonary bypass (sample 2), and at 1 hour (sample 3) and 3 hours after skin closure (sample4). The samples were then centrifuged at 2000g and plasma stored at – 70°C until immunoassay. vWf plasma level was measured using a commercially – available enzyme immunoassay kit (ELISA – von Willebrand Activity Kit, Shield Co., Germany) according to the manufacturer´s instructions. All patients´ parents gave informed written consent for participation in this study.
Data are presented as the arithmetic meanąstandard deviation. All values of vWf plasma levels were examined by repeated measures. Changes in vWf plasma levels as well as clinical findings were compared with the use of the unpaired Student´s – t-test. A value of P less or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Twenty patients with mean body weight 13.74ą ą10.33kg underwent total correction of congenital heart defects with the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass. There was no early (< 30 day) mortality. All patients were discharged from hospital 10ą3 days after operation. The mean operation time (i.e. from skin incision to skin closure) was 150 ą109 min (median 135 min). The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross clamp ing time were 66ą26.5 min (median 59 min) and 31.4ą20 min (median 28 min), respectively. Comparing various types of defects (group of patients with ASD2/PAPVD vs. group of patients with VSD) there were no statistically significant differences in body weight, age type of operation, CPB and aortic cross clamping times.
vWf plasma levels were significantly diminished after the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass in all patients. They were, however, significantly elevated in 15 patients one hour and/or three hours after finishing cardiopulmonary bypass (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Elevated plasma levels of vWf in 15 patients.
In the remaining 5 patients there was only a slight elevation of vWf plasma levels 1 hour after surgery (with no statistical significance), unchanged after 3 hours (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. No significant changes in vWf plasma levels in remaining 5patients 1 hour and 3 hours after surgery.
There was no correlation between a lack of vWf plasma level elevation and type of defect, cardio-pulmonary bypass, aortic cross clamp ing time, or reperfusion times. The only significant difference (p=0.017) between patients with raised and unchanged (constant) levels of vWf factor was the rate of hypothermia (27.64ą0.7°C vs. 30.74ą1.56°C, respectively) applied during CPB.
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