Artykuły w Czytelni Medycznej o SARS-CoV-2/Covid-19

Zastanawiasz się, jak wydać pracę doktorską, habilitacyjną lub monografię? Chcesz dokonać zmian w stylistyce i interpunkcji tekstu naukowego? Nic prostszego! Zaufaj Wydawnictwu Borgis – wydawcy renomowanych książek i czasopism medycznych. Zapewniamy przede wszystkim profesjonalne wsparcie w przygotowaniu pracy, opracowanie dokumentacji oraz druk pracy doktorskiej, magisterskiej, habilitacyjnej. Dzięki nam nie będziesz musiał zajmować się projektowaniem okładki oraz typografią książki.

Poniżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu. Informacja nt. dostępu do pełnej treści artykułu tutaj
© Borgis - New Medicine 1/2020, s. 3-10 | DOI: 10.25121/NewMed.2020.24.1.3
Karolina Raczkowska-Łabuda, *Lidia Zawadzka-Głos
SARS-CoV-2: the key issues
SARS-CoV-2: kluczowe informacje
Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Head of Department: Associate Professor Lidia Zawadzka-Głos, MD, PhD
Streszczenie
Pod koniec 2019 roku w przemysłowym mieście Wuhan, będącym stolicą chińskiej prowincji Hubei, rozpoczęła się epidemia nowej choroby wirusowej (nCoV-19). Skala zagrożenia wywołana przez koronawirusa była początkowo bagatelizowana ze względu na szczątkowe i wybiórcze informacje przekazywane z Chin. Od tego czasu nCoV-19 rozprzestrzenił się w 183 krajach na całym świecie, wywołując objawy infekcji i zgony w nieporównywalnej do tej pory skali. 11 marca dyrektor generalny Światowej Organizacji Zdrowia (WHO) Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus oficjalnie ogłosił wybuch pandemii COVID-19. Artykuł przedstawia podstawowe informacje dotyczące wirusa SARS-CoV-2 i choroby, którą powoduje: COVID-19. Podsumowuje metody diagnostyczne, zalecane postępowanie czy sposoby ograniczania zasięgu epidemii. Zawarte w pracy dane prezentują stan wiedzy z końca kwietnia 2020 roku.
Przegląd dostępnej literatury światowej skłania do wniosku, że mechanizmy przenoszenia SARS-CoV-2 nie zostały w pełni poznane, a rozprzestrzenianie się wirusa pomiędzy ludźmi odbywa się głównie drogą kropelkową. Spektrum objawów zakażeń waha się od łagodnych do krytycznych, ze znaczną przewagą występowania przypadków łagodnych/bezobjawowych. Obecnie rekomendowaną metodą diagnostyczną jest molekularny test wykrywający obecność RNA wirusa SARS-CoV-2. Inne, dostępne testy (tzw. szybkie) obejmują metody bezpośrednie – wykrycie antygenu SARS-CoV-2, lub pośrednie – wykrycie swoistych przeciwciał. Oddziały SOR mogą przybliżyć rozpoznanie za pomocą TK płuc lub LUS. Wykazano, że personel obecny przy zabiegach o podwyższonym ryzyku emisji aerozoli powinien być bezwzględnie wyposażony w profesjonalne środki ochrony indywidualnej (ŚOI). Zalecenia dotyczące procedur chirurgicznych laryngologii dziecięcej zawarte zostały w opracowaniu Międzynarodowej Grupy Otolaryngologii Pediatrycznej (IPOG) opublikowanym 14 kwietnia 2020 roku.
Summary
At the end of 2019, in the industrial city of Wuhan, which is the capital of the Chinese province of Hubei, a new coronavirus disease (nCoV-19) began to erupt. At the beginning, the scale of the threat posed by the virus was underestimated, and the information coming from China was residual and does not provide a complete picture of the situation. Since then, nCoV-19 has spread to 183 different countries around the world, causing many cases and thousands of deaths. On March 11, World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus officially declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. This review work aims to provide some basic information about the virus (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease it causes (COVID-19). In addition, it covers diagnostic methods, recommended management and methods to reduce the extent of infection. This is a kind of summary of the state of knowledge at the end of April 2020.
To summarize main observations based on the review of world literature on the subject is driving us into conclusion that the transmission mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 are not fully recognized. The spread of the virus from human to human occurs mainly through respiratory drops; symptomatic infections spectrum ranges from mild to critical, with a significant prevalence of mild/asymptomatic cases. Molecular test for the SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA is currently recommend. Other test include rapid direct SARS-CoV-2 antigen or indirect antibody detection, lung CT and LUS. Recommendation for ENT surgical procedures are collected in The International Paediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) statement published on the 14th of April 2020.Personnel involved in aerosol generating procedures should be fitted with PPE.
Słowa kluczowe: epidemia Covid-19, laryngologia dziecięca, Sars-Cov-2, epidemia 2020
Key words: Covid-19 epidemic, pediatric ENT, Sars-Cov-2, 2020 epidemic
Introduction
An outbreak of a novel coronavirus disease-19 (nCoV-19) infection began at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei Province of China (1). Since then, nCoV-19 spread in 183 different countries in the world, causing 2’899’833 cases and confirmed 203’055 deaths (as of April 25th, 2020 https://gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6). The virus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) previously, it was referred to as 2019-nCoV. The disease it causes is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
On March 11, World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus officially declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic (2). Worldwide public health groups have issued recommendations for preventing, diagnosing and treating the illness. This article will discuss the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and prevention of COVID-19.
Discussion
Epidemiology
Because information on the transmissibility of COVID-19 is not fully documented and confirmed, understanding of the transmission risk is incomplete. It is known that nowadays person-to-person spread of SARS-CoV-2 is thought to occur mainly via respiratory droplets, resembling the spread of influenza. Virus can infect another person when infected human coughs, sneezes, or talks via droplets having direct contact with the mucous membranes. Another fact is that human coronaviruses can remain infectious on surfaces for a number of days (3). In advance, transmission of COVID-19 from aerosol and other surfaces is possible (3, 4). It is also known that one key mechanism of transmission can be through self-inoculation from contaminated surfaces (e.g., through failure to observe proper hand hygiene and frequent face touching that is an unconscious common behavior). The confirmation that hands are the reason of auto-contamination may be found inter alia at the Yen Lee Angele Kwok’s work. Together with colleagues looked at behavioral characteristics involving medical students at the University of New South Wales in a longitudinal observational study, which was published in the February 1, 2015 issue of the American Journal of Infection Control (5). Researchers assessed face-touching behavior as a potential for virus transmission and self-inoculation. The study showed that, on average, of 26 students, each touched their face 23×/h. Of all face touches, 44% (1024/2346) involved contact with a mucous membrane whereas 56% (1322/2346) of contacts involved nonmucosal areas. Of mucous membrane touches observed, 36% (372/1024) involved the mouth, 31% (318/1024) involved the nose, 27% (273/1024) involved the eyes, and 6% (61/1024) were a combination of these regions.
Taking under consideration presence of SARS-CoV-2 in specimens obtained from sites other than the nasopharyngeal swab (which is the routine method used to confirm clinical diagnosis of COVID-19) the conclusion is that 93% positive samples for live virus were at bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, 72% in sputum, 63% in nasal swabs, 46% in fibrobronchoscope brush biopsy, 32% in pharyngeal swabs, 29% in feces, 1% in blood, and 0 in urine. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may be transmitted via the fecal route. Data were obtained from January 1 through February 17, 2020 at 3 hospitals in the Hubei and Shandong provinces and Beijing, China, with 1070 specimens collected from 205 infected patients (6).
Taking those data together, Kampf et al. concluded that studies looking at decontamination are the key one. They reviewed 22 studies examining the use of biocidal agents as chemical disinfection to inactivate the virus. Again, the researchers confirmed that both SARS and MERS can remain on metal, glass, and plastic for up to 9 days and showed that surface disinfection with solutions such as 62 to 71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within one minute can eradicate the presence of the virus. Other biocidal agents such as 0.05 to 0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate were shown to be less effective (7).
Clinical features
The incubation period of COVID-19 infection continues approximately 5.2 days (8). The period from the onset of COVID-19 symptoms to death is dependent on the age of the patient and status of the patient’s immune system and ranged from 6 to 41 days with a median of 14 days (9). It is statistically shorter among patients > 70-years old compared with those under the age of 70 (9). Major initial symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, anosmia/hyposmia, muscular soreness and dyspnea. Some patients showed atypical symptoms, such as diarrhea, vomiting, sputum production, headache, haemoptysis, diarrhoea, and lymphopenia (10-12). However, the clinical phenotype is confounded by the fact that 25.2% patients had at least one other underlying medical condition (13-16).
Data collected in China revealed that during the first and second phase of the epidemic patients were older, more likely to be male, and likely to have exposure to the seafood market. Clinically, they had more bilateral patchy shadows, or ground glass opacity in the lungs (11, 13, 14). Nowadays it is obvious that virus infection is not selective in age. It was reported even in a 1-month-old infant (17-19). The current statistical summaries show that out of 44 672 confirmed cases, 77.8% are between 30 and 69 years old and 51.4% are male (17). The spectrum of symptomatic infection ranges from mild to critical; most infections are not severe (11, 13, 14, 16). Based on the report of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention that included over 44,500 confirmed infections with an estimation of disease severity (20): Mild (no or mild pneumonia) was reported in 81%; Severe disease (e.g., with dyspnea, hypoxia, or > 50% lung involvement on imaging within 24 to 48 hours) was reported in 14%; Critical disease (e.g., with respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction) was reported in 5%. Disclosed overall case fatality rate was 2.3%; no deaths were reported among noncritical cases.
For the time being, there is no evidence for intrauterine infection by vertical transmission in women who developed COVID-19 during late pregnancy and no evidence that pregnant women are more susceptible compared with other adult patients (21).
Although currently the number of new infections is decreasing, the COVID-19 epidemic is still ongoing. Knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 is systematically improved.
Diagnosis
As reflected in the EU recommendations (22), accurate and timely COVID-19 laboratory testing is the key issue of the management of COVID-19 for supporting decisions on infection control strategies, slowing down the pandemic and detecting asymptomatic cases that could spread the virus further if not isolated. Global testing is essential for COVID-19 control. Molecular tests which detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA are currently recommend (22). The specimens should be collected from both the upper respiratory tract (naso- and oropharyngeal samples) and lower respiratory tract such as bronchoalveolar lavage (firstly), endotracheal aspirate, or expectorated sputum. The BAL samples should only be possessed from mechanically ventilated patients (22, 23). Those samples require storage at 4oC. Amplification of the genetic material is through a reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Test should be repeated for verification if it was positive and further due to evaluate for viral clearance prior to patient being released from observation (23). However, these tests require multiple reagents, well-equipped laboratory facilities and highly skilled technologists. Currently, supply shortages and infrastructure restrictions are limiting testing capacity. Therefore, rapid antigen tests for COVID-19 are thought to be solution for decrease the pressure on laboratories and expand testing capacity to meet the most urgent medical and public health needs. Rapid tests are qualitative or semi-quantitative in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) which involve non-automated procedures (24). These tests take around 10-30 minutes in order to get a result (compared with 4 hours to 3 days for molecular tests, especially if samples must be transported to a distant testing laboratory). Additionally, rapid tests are relatively simple to perform and interpret. There are two types of COVID-19 rapid tests currently in use: direct SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection and indirect antibody detection tests (25). Unfortunately, even these tools are insufficient for medical needs. Therefore, radiologist came with help determining COVID-19 possible CT patterns. According to Yan and Liming (26), CT has a low rate of missed diagnosis of COVID-19 (3.9%, 2/51) and thus may be useful as a standard method for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Ai et al. concluded that chest CT may be used as a primary tool for detecting COVID-19 in epidemic areas (27) and Fang et al. reported CT findings of pneumonia in 50 of 51 patients with RT-PCR–proven COVID-19 (28). These publications present sensitivity for the diagnosis of COVID-19 reported as 98 and 97%, respectively (26-28). The authors underlined the fact that CT findings were positive for viral infection before laboratory results in 37 of 53 (69.8%) patients (26). Ground-glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation are two main signs of COVID-19 lesions on CT images (26-28). Together, researchers of these publications, promoted the conclusion that the above observations in the CT imagining should induce radiologists to suggest COVID-19 as a possible diagnosis (26-29). On the other hand, all the CT features seen on the initial chest CT examinations of patients with COVID-19 such as GGO, consolidation, interlobular septal thickening, vascular enlargement, air bronchogram sign, and air trapping – are similar to the CT features of SARS and MERS and viruses from a different family, such as adenovirus (26). Consequently, positive CT results are only believable if the pretest probability of COVID-19 is high. But every time CT imaging suggests a viral infection, patients with suspected disease can be isolated and treated in time so that the management of patients will be optimized (26, 30).
Currently, the main focus is on the search for a fast, sensitive and safe COVID-19 diagnostic method. So far, the standard method involves doing an objective examination and carrying out radiological tests, such as chest radiography or chest CT. This means that the possibility of contamination of the medical devices and nosocomial spreading of the virus is undisputed. There is a huge risk of spreading COVID-19 over healthcare workers (among doctor, nurses, radiology technicians, cleaning stuff, etc.) and already hospitalized patients who have a higher risk of developing severe ARDS. Lung Ultrasound (LUS) can identify changes in the physical state of superficial lung tissue that correlates histopathologic findings and can be identified on CT but remain hidden in a large percentage of chest radiographs (31, 32). Since CT scanning is often not available in emergency departments, the use of ultrasound is now essential in the safe management of the COVID-19 outbreaks. Examination with LUS at Emergency Department can be executed by doctor with only one companion thereby reducing the number of people potentially infected (34). It should also not be underestimated that, in experimental models of ARDS, LUS has proved capable of detecting lung lesions before the development of hypoxemia (32).

Powyżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu, do którego możesz uzyskać pełny dostęp.

Płatny dostęp do wszystkich zasobów Czytelni Medycznej

Aby uzyskać płatny dostęp do pełnej treści powyższego artykułu oraz WSZYSTKICH około 7000 artykułów Czytelni, należy wprowadzić kod:

Kod (cena 30 zł za 30 dni dostępu) mogą Państwo uzyskać, przechodząc na tę stronę.
Wprowadzając kod, akceptują Państwo treść Regulaminu oraz potwierdzają zapoznanie się z nim.

Piśmiennictwo
1. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W et al.; China Novel Coronavirus Investigating and Research Team: A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020; 382: 727-733.
2. WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 – 11 March 2020. World Health Organization (WHO) website; https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020. Published March 11, 2020 (data dostępu: 23.03.2020).
3. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH et al.: Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:1564-1567.
4. Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY et al.: Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a symptomatic patient. JAMA 2020; 323(16): 1610-1612.
5. Kwok YL, Gralton J, McLaws ML: Face touching: a frequent habit that has implications for hand hygiene. Am J Infect Control 2015; 43: 112-114.
6. Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R et al.: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA 2020; 323(18): 1843-1844.
7. Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S et al.: Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect 2020; 104: 246-251.
8. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P et al.: Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(13): 1199-1207.
9. Wang W, Tang J, Wei F: Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. J Med Virol 2020; 92(4): 441-447.
10. Ren LL, Wang YM, Wu ZQ et al.: Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study. Chinese Med J 2020; 133(9): 1015-1024.
11. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X et al.: Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 497-506.
12. Carlos WG, Dela Cruz CS, Cao B et al.: Novel Wuhan (2019-nCoV) coronavirus. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 201(4): 7-8.
13. Wang D, Hu B, Hu Ch et al.: Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA 2020; 323(11): 1061-1069.
14. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X et al.: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020; 395: 507-513.
15. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S et al.: First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(10): 929-936.
16. Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok K-H et al.: A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 514.
17. Epidemiology Working Group for NCIP Epidemic Response, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention: The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020; 41(2): 145-151.
18. Guan W-J, Ni Z-Y, Hu Y et al.: Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China. N Engl J Med 2020; 382: 1708-1720.
19. Wei M, Yuan J, Liu Y et al.: Novel coronavirus infection in hospitalized infants under 1 year of age in China. JAMA 2020; 323(13): 1313-1314.
20. Wu Z, McGoogan JM: Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA 2020 Feb 24. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2648. Online ahead of print.
21. Chen H, Guo J, Wang Ch et al.: Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet 2020; 395(10226): 809-815.
22. European Commission: EU Recommendations for testing strategies. 2020; https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/covid19_eu_recommendations_on_testing_strategies_v2.pdf.
23. Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A et al.: Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Updated 2020 Mar 20). StatPearls (Internet). Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554776/.
24. Official Journal of the European Union 2009/108/EC: Commission Decision of 3 February 2009 amending Decision 2002/364/EC on common technical specifications for in vitro –diagnostic medical devices (notified under document number C(2009) 565); https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dec/2009/108(1)/oj.
25. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: An overview of the rapid test situation for COVID-19 diagnosis in the EU/EEA. 1 April 2020. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020.
26. Yan L, Liming X: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Role of Chest CT in Diagnosis and Management. Am J Roentgenology 2020; 214: 1280-1286.
27. Ai T, Yang Z, Hou H et al.: Correlation of chest CT and RT-PCR testing in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: a report of 1014 cases. Radiology 2020: 200642.
28. Fang Y, Zhang H, Xie J et al.: Sensitivity of chest CT for COVID-19: comparison to RT-PCR. Radiology 2020: 200432.
29. Kanne JP: Chest CT findings in 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections from Wuhan, China: key points for the radiologist. Radiology 2020 Feb 4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200241.
30. Hope MD, Raptis CA: Chest Computed Tomography for Detection of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Don’t Rush the Science. Ann Intern Med 2020; M20-1382.
31. Yoon SH, Lee KH, Kim J et al.: Chest radiographic and CT findings of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID?19): analysis of nine patients treated in Korea. Korean J Radiol 2020; 21: 494-500.
32. Soldati G, Smargiassi A, Inchingolo R et al.: Is There a Role for Lung Ultrasound During the COVID?19 Pandemic? J of Ultrasound in Medicine 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jum.15284.
33. Poggiali E, Dacrema A, Bastoni D et al.: Letter to the Editor: Can Lung US Help Critical Care Clinicians in the Early Diagnosis of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia? Radiology; Published Online 2020 March 13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200847.
34. Buonsenso D, Pata D, Chiaretti A: COVID-19 outbreak: less stethoscope, more ultrasound. Lancet 20 March 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30120-X.
35. GOV.UK: COVID-19: investigation and initial clinical management of possible cases – 24 March 2020; https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/wuhan-novel-coronavirus-initial-investigation-of-possiblecases/investigation-and-initial-clinical-management-of-possible-cases-of-wuhan-novel-coronavirus-wn-covinfection#criteria.
36. Tran K, Cimon K, Severn M et al.: Aerosol generating procedures and risk of transmission of acute respiratory infections to healthcare workers: a systematic review. PLoS One 2012; 7: e35797.
37. Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH et al.: Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020 Mar 17: NEJMc2004973. Published online 2020 Mar 17. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.09.20033217v1.full.pdf.
38. ENT UK: Guidance for ENT during the COVID-19 pandemic. 20 March 2020 (data dostępu: 22.03.2020).
39. Consensus statement: Safe Airway Society principles of airway management and tracheal intubation specific to the COVID-19 adult patient group. Medical Journal of Australia March 2020.
40. Royal College of Anaesthetists UK: COVID-19 airway management principles. Accessed 2020 March 24; https://icmanaesthesiacovid-19.org/covid-19-airway-management-principles.
41. ENT UK: Tracheostomy guidance during the COVID-19 Pandemic. March 24 2020; https://www.entuk.org/tracheostomy-guidance-during-covid-19-pandemic.
42. ASOHNS: ASOHNS guidelines addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. 22nd March; http://www.asohns.org.au/.
43. WHO 19/3/2020: Rational use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
44. Lu X, Zhang L, Du H et al.: SARS CoV-2 Infection in Children. N Engl J Med 2020; 382: 1663-1665.
45. Chow EJ, Schwartz NG, Tobolowsky FA et al.: Symptom Screening at Illness Onset of Health Care Personnel With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in King County, Washington. JAMA 2020; 323(20): 2087-2089.
46. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Confirmed 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or Patients Under Investigation for 2019-nCoV in Healthcare Settings; https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/hcp/infection-control.html (data dostępu: 15.04.2020).
47. Klompas M, Morris CA, Sinclair J et al.: Universal masking in Hospitals in the Covid-19 Era. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(21): e63.
48. Leung NHL, Chu DKW, Shiu EYC et al.: Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Nat Med 2020; 26(5): 676-680.
49. McMichael TM, Clark S, Pogosjans S et al.: COVID-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility – King County, Washington, February 27-March 9, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69(12): 339-342.
50. Wei WE, Li Z, Chiew CJ et al.: Presymptomatic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 – Singapore, January 23-March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69(14): 411-415.
51. Wallner G et al.: Wytyczne postępowania w oddziałach zabiegowych szpitali niejednoimiennych podczas pandemii COVID-19. 24th April 2020 MP Chirurgia; https://www.mp.pl/chirurgia/wytyczne-przegladowe/234357,wytyczne-dotyczace-postepowania-na-oddzialach-zabiegowych-szpitali-niejednoimiennych-podczas-pandemii-covid-19-21042020.
otrzymano: 2020-03-04
zaakceptowano do druku: 2020-03-25

Adres do korespondencji:
*Lidia Zawadzka-Głos
Klinika Otolaryngologii Dziecięcej Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny
ul. Żwirki i Wigury 63A, 02-091 Warszawa, Polska
tel.: +48 (22) 317-97-21
laryngologia@spdsk.edu.pl

New Medicine 1/2020
Strona internetowa czasopisma New Medicine