Ludzkie koronawirusy - autor: Krzysztof Pyrć z Zakładu Mikrobiologii, Wydział Biochemii, Biofizyki i Biotechnologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Kraków

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© Borgis - New Medicine 4/2009, s. 82-84
Lechosław P. Chmielik, *Magdalena Fršckiewicz, Mieczysław Chmielik
COMPLICATIONS OF OTITIS MEDIA IN CHILDREN TREATED IN THE ENT PAEDIATRIC CLINIC OF WARSAW MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
Department of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Head of Department: Prof. Mieczysław Chmielik, MD, PhD
Summary
Introduction. Otitis media is one of the most common diseases among children. Difficulties with treating acute and chronic otitis media may result among other things in insufficient drug penetration to the inflammatory focus, inadequate dose of drugs or antibiotic, or increasing drug resistance of microorganisms. Complications of otitis media are divided into: intra-temporal, intracranial and systemic complications.
Aim. The aim of this research was the analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children treated for complications of otitis media in the ENT Paediatric Clinic of Warsaw Medical University.
Material and method. The case histories of 38 children treated in the ENT Paediatric Clinic of Warsaw Medical University in the period between January 2005 and March 2009 were studied. The aim of the analysis was: clinical picture, course of disease, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well as the results of the treatment.
Results. There were 21 children (55.26% of analyzed patients) with mastoiditis, 6 children (15.78% of analyzed patients) with facial palsy, 1 child with fistula of the semicircular lateral canal, 4 children with thrombosis sigmoid sinusitis, and 2 children with systemic complication.
Conclusions. 1. The clinical view of otitis media complications has been changing and very few cases correspond with their description in the literature. 2. In case of otitis media complications the coordination of pharmacological and surgical treatment is necessary. 3. All otitis media complications require hospitalization. 4. Progress in pharmacological treatment enables less aggressive surgical treatment.
INTRODUCTION
Otitis media is one of the most common diseases among children. Difficulties with treating acute and chronic otitis media may result among other things in insufficient drug penetration to the inflammatory focus, inadequate dose of drugs or antibiotic, or increasing drug resistance of microorganisms. The consequence of this may be uncontrollable course of disease leading to complications. Malformations and anatomical dissimilarities may predispose to complications in otitis media. Complications of otitis media are divided into (2, 4, 8, 9, 10):
– intra-temporal: mastoiditis, facial palsy or paresis, inflammation of inner ear and inflammation of temporal bone pyramid;
– intracranial: epidural and subdural abscess, thrombosis sigmoid sinusitis, meningitis, cerebral or cerebellar abscess;
– systemic complications: sepsis and distant abscesses.
The majority of complications of otitis media are the result of a chronic inflammatory process. An exception is mastoiditis during acute otitis media of infants. The most common pathogens of otitis media are: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (2, 4). In chronic otitis occurrence of anaerobes, staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus is possible. Before the common use of antibiotics intracranial complications of otitis media occurred in 2.3% of cases.
AIM
The aim of this research was the analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children treated for complications of otitis media in the ENT Paediatric Clinic of Warsaw Medical University in the period between January 2005 and March 2009.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
The case histories of 38 children treated in the ENT Paediatric Clinic of Warsaw Medical University in the period between January 2005 and March 2009 were studied. The aim of the analysis was: clinical picture, course of disease, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well as the results of the treatment.
RESULTS
1. There were 21 children (55.26% of analyzed patients) with mastoiditis (fig. 1):
Fig. 1. CT of mastoiditis.
– 1 case of infiltration of base of the brain during mastoiditis;
A boy with limitation of neck movement and infiltration of the mastoid process was admitted to the Clinic. In computed tomography of the temporal bones and neck provided by the Paediatric Radiology Department of Warsaw Medical University (Fig. 2) inflammatory lesions of the right and left mastoid process as well as a lesion of soft tissues of the neck reaching the base of the skull were detected. After bilateral antromastoidectomy and antibiotic therapy the lesions were limited. Symptoms of disease abated after 3 days. After discharge the lesion was controlled by MRI examination in an outpatient clinic.
Fig. 2. CT of inflammatory lesion of parapharyngeal region.
– in the analyzed group in 12 cases paracentesis was performed and in 12 cases antromastoidectomy;
– bacteriological examination revealed: Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus opalis, Staphylococcus coagulase(-), Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtericum, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans;
– intravenous antibiotic therapy was performed using: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, Flumycon, vancomycin, ceftazidime, norfloxacin, cefotaxime, clarithromycin.
2. There were 6 children (15.78% of analyzed patients) with facial palsy:
– 3 of 6 children were treated non-invasively by rehabilitation;
– in 3 of 6 cases paracentesis was performed;
– in 2 of 6 cases antromastoidectomy was performed
– antibiotic therapy was performed using: amoxicillin//clavulanic acid, clindamycin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone;
– in all 6 cases improvement of facial nerve function was obtained.
3. There was 1 child with fistula of the semicircular lateral canal:

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Piśmiennictwo
1. Chmielik LP, Ziołkowski J, Koziolek R et al.: Ear tuberculosis: clinical and surgical treatment. International Journal of Pediatric Otalaryngology 2008; 72, 271-274. 2. Chmielik M: Otolaryngologia dziecięca PZWL 2001, 279-306. 3. Iwaszkiewicz S. Po?piech L: Operacje powikłań usznopochodnych. Techniki zabiegów i operacji. W: Otolaryngologii (red.) Latkowski B. PZWL 200; 205-207. 4. Mierzwiński J, Fishman AJ: Przewlekłe zapalenie ucha ?rodkowego. Otolaryngologia dziecięca (red.) Gryczyńska D, α medica Press 2007; 95-142. 5. Mierzwiński J, Fishman AJ: Przewlekłe zapalenie ucha ?rodkowego. Otolaryngologia dziecięca (red.) Gryczyńska D, α medica Press 2007; 128. 6. Ooi EH, Hilton M, Hunter G: Management of lateral sinus thrombosis: update and literature review. J. Laryngol. Otol 2003; 117(12), 932-9. 7. Piziewicz A, Mierzwiński J: Two cases of tuberculous otitis media in children. The new Frontiers of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology in Europe Motta G. Ed. Monduzzi Editore, Bologna 1992; 167-172. 8. Otolaryngologia Dziecięca (red.) D. Gryczyńskiej, 2007. 9. Bluestone, Stool, Alper et al.: Pediatric Otolaryngology. Saunders 2003. 10. Bianchini C, Aimoni C, Ceruti S et al.: Lateral sinus thrombosis as a complication of acute mastoiditis. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2008; Feb 28(1): 30-3.
Adres do korespondencji:
*Magdalena Fršckiewicz
Klinika Otolaryngologii Dziecięcej WUM
00-576 Warszawa, ul. Marszałkowska 24
tel./fax: + 48 22 628 05 84
e-mail: laryngologia@litewska.edu.pl

New Medicine 4/2009
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