Interdisciplinary (surgical and orthodontic) treatment in a patient with compound odontoma associated with impacted permanent lateral incisor of the mandible – a case report
Leczenie interdyscyplinarne (chirurgiczno-ortodontyczne) zębiaka zestawnego związanego z zatrzymanym stałym siekaczem bocznym żuchwy – opis przypadku
Impacted teeth are one of the reasons for orthodontic appointments. Two conditions must be met for the tooth to be considered impacted, i.e. a fully developed tooth that has not erupted on time. A fully impacted tooth is completely embedded in the bone, whereas a partially impacted tooth is covered with mucosa or only a fragment of the tooth’s crown is erupted (1). There are a number of reasons for the presence of impacted teeth, such as e.g. lack of space in the dental arch (due to a tendency to reduce mandibular and maxillary bones in the course of evolution as well as inconsistencies in the number and size of teeth), traumatic and genetic factors, inflammatory processes within the bone, vitamin A and D deficiency, and endocrine disorders. Impacted teeth also occur in syndromes, e.g. cleidocranial dysostosis (1, 2). The presence of odontoma in the maxillary bone when impacted teeth are observed is a particular situation. We present a case of a compound odontoma located in the anterior part of the mandible and associated with impacted permanent right lateral incisor of the mandible.
The aim of the study was to present the advances in interdisciplinary (surgical and orthodontic) treatment of a compound odontoma associated with the impacted permanent right lateral incisor of the mandible and a review of relevant literature.
A literature review covering years 1990-2016 was performed. Medical databases, such as PubMed and Medline, were used. The following keywords were used: “impacted”, “odontoma”, “orthodontic treatment”. Additionally, a manual search of specialist literature regarding orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery was conducted. Polish and English-language publications were included.
A 17-year-old female patient reported to the Orthodontic Clinic in the Specialist Hospital in Radom for consultation and treatment due to a persistent mandibular right lateral incisor and a bulging on the internal surface of the mandible. No significant family or general medical history was reported. No previous trauma or infections in the anterior mandible were reported. Extraoral examination revealed no abnormalities. Intraoral examination revealed mixed dentition, and in the right mandible: a persistent primary lateral incisor, the lack of permanent lateral incisor and oedema of the inner surface of the anterior mandible (fig. 1a-e). The adjacent teeth (mandibular canine tooth and mandibular canine tooth on the right side) showed normal colour and reaction to ethyl chloride. The surrounding mucous membrane was smooth, pink, moist and shiny. Orthodontic examination showed Angle’s Class II tendency and 1/2 of cuspid class II on the right, Angle’s Class I and cuspid class I on the left, as well as: a midline shift of 3 mm to the right, minor maxillary and mandibular dental crowding.
Panoramic radiography (fig. 2) showed an oval structure with clear borders and filled with a mass of small structures, probably corresponding to a compound odontoma. Cephalometry showed skeletal class I and anteriorotation (fig. 3). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the mandible was also preformed to precisely locate the lesion and plan treatment. CBCT showed no resorption of the teeth adjacent to the tumour, i.e. the medial incisor and the canine tooth (fig. 4).
After clinical and radiological examination, a preliminary diagnosis was made: a compound odontoma in the anterior part of the mandible, impacted mandibular right lateral incisor. The treatment plan included interdisciplinary, i.e. surgical and orthodontic, treatment. A two-stage surgical treatment was planned. In the first stage, surgical enucleation of the tumour was performed, while the second stage involved tooth exposure and positioning of a bracket on the tooth in order to apply orthodontic force. The aim of orthodontic treatment was to restore the site for the impacted permanent mandibular lateral incisor, and then introduce the tooth into the dental arch using orthodontic force. Written consent from the subject/subject’s parents/subject’s legal guardians was obtained.
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