Ponad 7000 publikacji medycznych!
Statystyki za 2021 rok:
odsłony: 8 805 378
Artykuły w Czytelni Medycznej o SARS-CoV-2/Covid-19

Poniżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu. Informacja nt. dostępu do pełnej treści artykułu tutaj
© Borgis - Medycyna Rodzinna 2/2018, s. 169-176 | DOI: 10.25121/MR.2018.21.2.169
Grzegorz Król
Barriers in the use of nicotine as a tobacco harm reduction tool
Bariery w wykorzystaniu nikotyny jako narzędzia redukcji szkód wywołanych paleniem tytoniu
Katedra Psychologii i Socjologii Zarządzania, Wydział Zarządzania, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Postęp w nauce i technice na początku XXI wieku wymusił zmianę w sposobie myślenia o nikotynie, a także umożliwił analizę szkodliwości różnych rodzajów produktów dostarczających nikotynę – co stanowi niezbędny krok do określenia kontinuum szkodliwości produktów tytoniowych. Dostępność produktów o silnie zróżnicowanej szkodliwości umożliwia podejmowanie względem osób palących papierosy pełnego spektrum oddziaływań, zarówno zmierzających do całkowitego rzucenia palenia, ale także opartych na idei redukcji szkód, tj. ochronie osób trzecich przed szkodliwością dymu tytoniowego oraz minimalizacji ryzyka dla osób, które nie potrafią całkowicie zrezygnować z używania nikotyny. Te ostatnie oddziaływania są powstrzymywane przez szereg barier: (a) stereotypy dotyczące szkodliwości e-papierosów, (b) niedoskonałości legislacji i regulacji rynkowej, (c) brak zaufania i dialogu pomiędzy kluczowymi grupami wpływającymi na kształt rynku produktów nikotynowych oraz (d) niewykorzystany potencjał motywacji finansowej użytkowników wyrobów tytoniowych.
W XXI wieku przedwczesną śmierć z powodu chorób związanych z paleniem papierosów może ponieść miliard osób. Aby do tego nie dopuścić, niezbędne jest zniesienie wyżej wymienionych barier oraz wykorzystanie pełnego spektrum najnowszych wyników badań nad nikotyną i produktami nikotynowymi o obniżonej szkodliwości, a także wszelkich dostępnych oddziaływań, z uwzględnieniem technik redukcji szkód.
At the beginning of the 21st century the scientific and technological advancement forced a change in the way of thinking about nicotine; it also enabled the harmfulness of various types of nicotine delivery products to be analysed, which constitutes an essential step towards the determination of the continuum of risk of tobacco products. The availability of products with various levels of harmfulness enables one to take a complete set of actions towards smokers which include both those aiming at complete smoking cessation and those based on the idea of harm reduction, i.e. the protection of third parties from the harmful effects of tobacco smoke and risk minimisation for individuals who are not able to quit nicotine completely. Harm reduction actions are hampered by a number of barriers: (a) stereotypes regarding the harmfulness of e-cigarettes, (b) imperfect legislation and market regulation, (c) lack of trust and dialogue between the key groups which influence the nicotine products market and (d) unused potential of financial motivation in tobacco users.
In the 21st century one billion people can die prematurely as a result of smoking-related diseases. In order to prevent this, it is essential to remove the barriers mentioned above, take advantage of the complete spectrum of the latest research on nicotine and reduced-risk nicotine products and take all available measures, including harm reduction techniques.

At the end of the second decade of the 21st century the condition of science, technology, public awareness and public health discourse regarding nicotine and the harmfulness of smoking is entirely different from the one at the end of the 20th century. The predictions from the earlier period suggested that it would be possible to completely eradicate the ‘smoking epidemic’ by 2030 despite the fact that in the nineties only legislative (smoking ban) and propaganda measures were available and alternative tobacco products available on the market were limited to nicotine gums and patches. In 2018 there are no longer any doubts that the world will not be tobacco-free in 2030. Some Scandinavian countries hope to be tobacco-free either as a result of legislation (a total smoking ban in Finland planned for 2030) or the promotion of safe nicotine products such as snus (Norway, Sweden) (1, 2). Meanwhile, the invention and promotion of the e-cigarette by the Chinese chemist Hon Lik in 2001-2003 was the beginning of a technological revolution which dramatically increased the availability of alternative, safer nicotine products and resulted in the rapid development of a great number of solutions not by legislators or the industry, but by consumers looking for safer ways of using nicotine (3). Perhaps it was this ‘grassroots’ nature of the fast progressing changes that caused international organisations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as governments and the pharmaceutical and tobacco industries to fail to keep pace with these changes, thus hampering the health promotion potential of reduced-risk nicotine products.
Continuum of risk
Under pressure from researchers and users of modern reduced-risk nicotine products (RRNP) the organisations which deal with public health and regulatory practice in this area start to admit publicly that the greatest harm associated with tobacco products is not caused by nicotine as a chemical substance, but by harmful chemical compounds generated during tobacco combustion. The modern approach based on scientific research results indicates the presence of a ‘continuum of risk’: although every product containing nicotine currently available on the market can be harmful to some extent, a precise determination of the magnitude of this risk is necessary. For example, reports of 2015 and an update of 2018 by Public Health England (PHE) indicate a 95% lower harmfulness of e-cigarettes compared to conventional cigarettes (4, 5). The U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has also accepted that e-cigarettes are less harmful and expressed it in the report ‘Public Health Consequences of E-cigarettes’ of 2018 (6). Such an approach presented by key institutions in the UK and USA contributes to the gradual change in the dynamics of debate on the negative consequences of nicotine dependency. It points to the need to clearly separate the effects of tobacco smoking (particularly toxic compounds formed in the process of tobacco combustion) from the effects of nicotine as a chemical substance, which can be delivered in various ways safer than tobacco burning.
Currently, one of the important tasks for the academic and medical communities regarding nicotine research is precise quantification of the harmfulness of different products. Only once precise quantitative indicators of the harmfulness of particular types of products become available, a better, reliable and evidence-based dialogue between scientists, consumers, decision-makers and legislators will be possible.
Harmful stereotypes
The progress in research on the harmfulness of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn products seems to be detached from the social perception of the harmfulness of these products. For this reason, scientific progress has been accompanied for some time with actions by consumer organisations and science promoters aiming at the eradication of erroneous, stereotypical opinions that RRNP products such as e-cigarettes, for example, are more harmful than traditional cigarettes. Research conducted in Norway demonstrated that compared to conventional cigarettes (100% of relative harmfulness) snus is perceived as harmful in 78-88% and e-cigarettes are perceived as such in 57-75% (7, 8).
The development of the idea of tobacco harm reduction faces an additional barrier in less developed countries, which is the lack of scientific experts and authorities who could oppose the dictate of international organisations or tobacco industry lobbyists. In recent years local pseudoexperts have repeatedly presented erroneous opinions that the level of harmfulness of smoking and e-cigarette use is identical, contrary to the results of research on the matter. Therefore, it is of particular importance to reach the groups and areas at the highest risk with objective information and research results and to make them realise that nicotine as a pure chemical compound delivered in a safe form not associated with carcinogenic smoke and tarry substances should not be considered as inseparable from cigarettes and stigmatised as a highly harmful tobacco product.
Legislation and market regulation
Powered by grassroots initiatives of small, very active companies, the rapid expansion of reduced-risk nicotine products (e.g. e-cigarettes, heat-not-burn products, snus) requires quick reaction from market regulatory institutions to establish clear procedures for the marketing of user-safe products, for which there is a huge demand. In the USA alone over 20 million smokers express active interest in new reduced-risk products.
RRNP users are trying to exert a growing pressure on manufacturers pointing out that there is no one universal solution, one product that could satisfy various needs of the multimillion group of consumers. Consumer organisations and umbrella organisations which connect individual national associations into a large network with a much higher potential for action (e.g. International Network of Nicotine Consumer Organisations – INNCO) aim at receiving the right to speak at international forums, including WHO meetings where the most important decisions are taken affecting RRNP legal regulation (9).

Powyżej zamieściliśmy fragment artykułu, do którego możesz uzyskać pełny dostęp.
Mam kod dostępu
  • Aby uzyskać płatny dostęp do pełnej treści powyższego artykułu albo wszystkich artykułów (w zależności od wybranej opcji), należy wprowadzić kod.
  • Wprowadzając kod, akceptują Państwo treść Regulaminu oraz potwierdzają zapoznanie się z nim.
  • Aby kupić kod proszę skorzystać z jednej z poniższych opcji.

Opcja #1


  • dostęp do tego artykułu
  • dostęp na 7 dni

uzyskany kod musi być wprowadzony na stronie artykułu, do którego został wykupiony

Opcja #2


  • dostęp do tego i pozostałych ponad 7000 artykułów
  • dostęp na 30 dni
  • najpopularniejsza opcja

Opcja #3


  • dostęp do tego i pozostałych ponad 7000 artykułów
  • dostęp na 90 dni
  • oszczędzasz 28 zł
1. Naumov D: Finland is set to become the first country to eradicate smokers [Internet]. Business Insider Nordic; https://nordic.businessinsider.com/finland-has-committed-to-eradicating-smokers--killing-yourself-with-cigarettes-is-now-insanely-inconvenient-and-expensive-2017-1/ (data dostępu: 18.06.2018).
2. Lund I, Lund K: How Has the Availability of Snus Influenced Cigarette Smoking in Norway? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2014; 11(11): 11705-11717.
3. Wikipedia contributors: Hon Lik – Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia [Internet], 2018; https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hon_Lik&oldid=841955941.
4. McNeill A, Brose LS, Calder R et al.: Public Health England. E-cigarettes: an evidence 31. update A report commissioned by Public Health England. London 2015.
5. McNeill A, Brose LS, Calder R et al.: Evidence review of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco 32. products 2018. A report commissioned by Public Health England. London 2018.
6. Committee on the Review of the Health Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice, Health and Medicine Division, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes [Internet]. Stratton K, Kwan LY, Eaton DL (eds.). National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 2018. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24952.
7. Lund M, Lund KE, Halkjelsvik T: Contrasting smokers’ and snus users’ perceptions of personal tobacco behavior in Norway. Nicotine Tob Res 2014; 16(12): 1577-1585.
8. Scheffels J, Lund I: Cute as candy: a qualitative study of perceptions of snus branding and package design among youth in Norway. BMJ Open 2017; 7(4): e012837.
9. INNCO Documents [Internet]. International Network of Nicotine Consumer Organisations; https://innco.org/published-documents/innco-documents.
10. Daniel Roth H, Roth AB, Liu X: Health Risks of Smoking Compared to Swedish Snus. Inhalation Toxicology 2005; 17(13): 741-748.
11. Lee PN: The Epidemiology of Tobacco and Lung Cancer: Some Conclusions from a Lifetime of Research. [In:] Adonis M (ed.): A Global Scientific Vision – Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Lung Cancer [Internet]. InTech; http://www.intechopen.com/books/a-global-scientific-vision-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-lung-cancer/the-epidemiology-of-tobacco-and-lung-cancer-some-conclusions-from-a-lifetime-of-research.
12. The Snus Case Timeline [Internet]. New Nicotine Alliance UK; https://nnalliance.org/the-snus-case-timeline.
13. Hilts P: Tobacco Chiefs Say Cigarettes Aren’t Addictive [Internet]. New York Times. 1994; https://www.nytimes.com/1994/04/15/us/tobacco-chiefs-say-cigarettes-aren-t-addictive.html.
14. Tobacco Company CEOs Testify Before Congress [Internet]; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_ZDQKq2F08 (data dostępu: 18.06.2018).
15. Food and Drug Administration: Harmful and potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List. Federal Register 2012.
16. Hoggan K: Philip Morris places anti-smoking advertisement in papers [Internet]. BBC Business News, 2018; https://www.bbc.com/news/business-42539142.
17. How to feel and think about nicotine and those who use it. [Internet]. 5th Global Forum on Nicotine, Warsaw 2018; https://youtu.be/TXuOxzv4ohI.
18. Obedience to Authority: Current Perspectives on the Milgram Paradigm. Routledge 1999.
19. World Health Organization, Bloomberg Philanthropies. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2017: monitoring tobacco use and prevention policies 2017.
20. Letlape K: Rethinking Nicotine: Panel dyskusyjny: Where to next? 5th Global Forum on Nicotine, Warszawa 16 czerwca 2018.
21. Differential Taxes for Differential Risks – Toward Reduced Harm from Nicotine-Yielding Products. N Engl J Med 2015; 373: 594-597.
22. Farsalinos K: Electronic cigarettes: an aid in smoking cessation, or a new health hazard? Ther Adv Respir Dis 2018; 12:175346581774496.
23. Institute for Environmental Negotiation, University of Virginia. The Changing Environment of Tobacco, Nicotine and Alternative Product Regulation: Developing a More Coherent and Rational Approach, 2012: 12-16; https://ien.virginia.edu/sites/ien.virginia.edu/files/Tobacco%20Report%20Revised_FINAL.pdf.
otrzymano: 2018-05-10
zaakceptowano do druku: 2018-05-31

Adres do korespondencji:
Grzegorz Król
Katedra Psychologii i Socjologii Zarządzania Wydział Zarządzania Uniwersytet Warszawski
ul. Szturmowa 1/3, 02-678 Warszawa
tel.: +48 501-188-768

Medycyna Rodzinna 2/2018
Strona internetowa czasopisma Medycyna Rodzinna

Pozostałe artykuły z numeru 2/2018: