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© Borgis - New Medicine 4/2010, s. 160-162
*Sylwia Merkiel, Wojciech Chalcarz
Nutritional knowledge of the preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity. Part 5. Preparing meals
Food and Nutrition Department of the Eugeniusz Piasecki
University School of Physical Education in Poznan
Head of the Department: dr hab. Wojciech Chalcarz, prof. nadzw. AWF
Summary
The aim of this study was to assess knowledge on preparing meals in the preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity.
The questionnaires on the knowledge about preparing meals were filled in by 84 women who were employed in eight preschools in Nowy Sącz and the vicinity. We used the SPSS 12.0 PL for Windows computer programme to carry out the statistical analysis. The studied population?s answers were analysed according to education.Education had statistically significant influence on the question which required answer whether vegetable stock should be thrown away. The highest percentage of women with secondary education, 97.0%, knew that vegetable stock should not be thrown away. The percentage of correct answers to this question was 90.0% in the staff with higher education and only 66.7% in the staff with vocational education.
The level of knowledge on preparing meals in the studied preschool staff was low, particularly in the staff with vocational education whose duties in the preschool included serving and preparing meals for children. It is highly recommended to work out and implement educational programmes aimed at increasing the level of nutritional knowledge in preschool staff, especially those who plan and prepare meals for children, and to publish popular science books and audiovisual educational aids on nutrition.
INTRODUCTION
Knowledge on the principles of preparing meals is of vital importance to preparing meals by the preschool staff because it not only protects the meals from contamination but also helps to maintain the highest nutritional value of the meals. Few studies published so far have focused on this area of nutritional knowledge in preschool staff (1) and preschoolers? parents (2, 3). Those studies showed the need to improve knowledge on preparing meals in the studied populations.
AIM
The aim of this study was to assess knowledge on preparing meals in the preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The questionnaires on the knowledge about preparing meals were filled in by the staff from eight preschools in Nowy Sącz and the vicinity. The studied population of 84 women included 47 preschool teachers, 14 teacher?s assistants, 9 cook?s assistants, 7 cooks, two area specialists and one purchasing manager.
The questionnaire was comprised of 17 questions: 2 questions on storing food, 4 questions on rinsing foods and 11 questions on cooking. We used similar questionnaire in our previous study on parents of preschool children from Pabianice (2) and from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity (3). Some of these questions were also used in the study on preschool staff from Pabianice (1).
Detailed characteristics of the studied population was published in our previous article (4).
We used the SPSS 12.0 PL for Windows computer programme to carry out the statistical analysis. The studied population?s answers were analysed according to education. Qualitative variables were presented in contingency tables. Statistical significance was determined using Pearson?s chi-square test, except for the variables with more than 20% of cells with an expected frequency of less than five. In this case, the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. The level of significance was set at p ? 0.05.
RESULTS
Table 1 presents correct answers given by the studied preschool staff to the questions concerning preparing meals. Education had statistically significant influence on the answers to question 9. This question required answer whether vegetable stock should be thrown away. The highest percentage of women with secondary education, 97.0%, knew that vegetable stock should not be thrown away. The percentage of correct answers to this question was 90.0% in the staff with higher education and only 66.7% in the staff with vocational education.
Table 1. Correct answers given by the studied preschool staff to the questions concerning preparing meals. Results
given in (%).
No.Correct answersEducationAll staff (n=84)
Vocational (n=21)Secondary (n=33)Higher (n=30)
1.Exposition of food to sun light reduces content of B-complex vitamins61.957.653.357.1
2.Storing cooked vegetables, e.g. potatoes, in high temperature for a long time reduces vitamin C content81.081.886.783.3
3.Rinsing vegetables and fruit for a long time after removing their peel is not recommended81.072.770.073.8
4.Rinsing chopped foodstuffs does not reduce vitamin A content9.59.123.314.3
5.Rinsing chopped foodstuffs reduces content of B-complex vitamins23.824.230.026.2
6.Rinsing chopped foodstuffs reduces vitamin C content71.460.663.364.3
7.Cooking vegetables should not be started in cold water14.324.243.328.6
8.Vegetables should not be cooked in large amount of water47.666.766.761.9
9.Vegetable stock should not be thrown away66.797.090.086.9
10.Frying should be started in hot fat100.097.0100.098.8
11.Rapeseed oil should be used to fry foodstuffs for children52.430.350.042.9
12.Olive oil should be used to fry foodstuffs for children71.487.980.081.0
13.Sunflower oil should be used to fry foodstuffs for children66.778.863.370.2
14.Lard should not be used to fry foodstuffs for children42.966.753.356.0
15.Soft margarines should not be used to fry foodstuffs for children42.966.753.356.0
16.Butter should not be used to fry foodstuffs for children42.957.646.750.0
17.Reheating meals several times is not recommended100.0100.0100.0100.0
Bold type denotes statistically significant results (p ? 0.05).
DISCUSSION
Knowledge on preparing meals in the studied preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity was varied. The lowest level of knowledge was observed in women with vocational education which is highly unfavourable because their duties in the preschool included serving and preparing meals for children. Moreover, the staff with vocational education was also characterised by the lowest level of knowledge on general principles of nutrition during childhood (4), nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases (5), rich sources of minerals and vitamins (6) and the role of nutrients and principles of composing a diet (7). To only ten questions correct answers were given by more than 50% of women with vocational education, whereas among women with secondary education, more than 50% of them knew the correct answer to twelve questions. Among the staff with higher education, at least half of them answered correctly to thirteen questions.
The most difficult questions for the studied women were question 4, 5 and 7. Correct answers were given by only 14.3, 26.2 and 28.6% of the staff, respectively. Questions four and five required the answer whether rinsing chopped foodstuffs reduces the content of vitamin A and B-complex vitamins, respectively, and question seven required the answer whether cooking vegetables should be started in cold water. Of course, while rinsing chopped foodstuffs, there is the loss of water-soluble vitamins, that is vitamin C and B-complex vitamins, but not vitamin A, and cooking vegetables should not be started in cold water (8). It is noteworthy that these questions were the most difficult also to the preschool staff from Pabianice (1), and parents of preschool children from Pabianice (2) and the Nowy Sącz region (3). However, the percentages of correct answers in these three populations (1, 2, 3) were higher than in the studied preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity.
To question four, the highest percentage of correct answers was observed in parents of preschool children from the Nowy Sącz region, 19.8% (3). To the remaining two questions, question five and seven, the highest percentage of correct answers was found in the preschool staff from Pabianice, 48.1 and 43.2%, respectively (1).
Also to question eight, eleven, fourteen, fifteen and sixteen, correct answers were given by the lowest percentage of the studied preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity. However, the highest percentage of the studied women knew the correct answer to question two, nine, ten, thirteen and seventeen, in comparison with the preschool staff from Pabianice (1), and parents of preschoolers from
Pabianice (2) and the Nowy Sącz region (3). The percentage of correct answers given by the studied women to question one and three was lower than in the preschool staff from Pabianice (1), but higher than in parents of children from
Pabianice (2) and the Nowy Sącz region (3). Lower percentage of the studied preschool staff, 64.3%, in comparison with the staff from preschools in Pabianice, 66.7% (1), but higher than parents of children from Pabianice, 41.2% (2), and parents from the Nowy Sącz region, 47.5% (3), knew the correct answer to question six. To question twelve, correct answer was given by a lower percentage of the studied staff, 81.0%, compared to parents of children from the Nowy Sącz region, 87.5% (3), but higher than parents of children from Pabianice, 62.0% (2).
CONCLUSIONS
1. The level of knowledge on preparing meals in the studied preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity was low, particularly in the staff with vocational education whose duties in the preschool included serving and preparing meals for children.
2. It is highly recommended to work out and implement educational programmes aimed at increasing the level of nutritional knowledge in preschool staff, especially those who plan and prepare meals for children, and to publish popular science books and audiovisual educational aids on nutrition.
Piśmiennictwo
1. Chalcarz W, Hodyr Z, Drabikowska-Śrama A: Wiedza żywieniowa pracowników przedszkoli. Nowa Med 1999; 6(7): 62-67. 2. Chalcarz W, Hodyr Z: Wiedza żywieniowa rodziców dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym. Materiały X Jubileuszowej Międzynarodowej Konferencji Naukowej: Uwarunkowania środowiskowe zdrowia dzieci. Legnica 1-2 czerwca 2001 roku; 117-121. 3. Chalcarz W, Merkiel S: Wiedza żywieniowa rodziców dzieci przedszkolnych z Nowego Sącza i okolic. 5. Technologia przygotowania potraw. Roczn PZH 2010; 61(4): 385-388. 4. Merkiel S, Chalcarz W: Nutritional knowledge of the preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity. Part 1. General principles of nutrition during childhood. New Med (Wars) 2010; 14(2): 44-48. 5. Merkiel S, Chalcarz W: Nutritional knowledge of the preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity. Part 2. Nutritional prevention of diet-related diseases. New Med (Wars) 2010; 14(2): 49-52. 6. Chalcarz W, Merkiel S: Nutritional knowledge of the preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity. Part 3. Rich sources of minerals and vitamins. New Med (Wars) 2010; 14(3): 79-83. 7. Chalcarz W, Merkiel S: Nutritional knowledge of the preschool staff from Nowy Sącz and the vicinity. Part 4. The role of nutrients and principles of composing a diet. New Med (Wars) 2010; 14(4): prosimy o uzupełnienie numerów stron. 8. Fuller J, Kirk D: Kitchen planning and management. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. Oxford, London, 1991.
otrzymano: 2010-11-10
zaakceptowano do druku: 2010-12-15

Adres do korespondencji:
*Sylwia Merkiel
Zakład Żywności i Żywienia
Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego w Poznaniu
ul. Droga Dębińska 7, 61-555 Poznań
tel.: +48 61 835 52 87
e-mail: sylwiamerkiel@awf.poznan.pl

New Medicine 4/2010
Strona internetowa czasopisma New Medicine